Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)" )' returned 40 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Probus

(1,292 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Imperator Caesar M. Aurelius Probus Augustus Roman emperor AD 276-282 Roman emperor 276-282 AD. Born on 19 August 232 AD in Sirmium; the information about his father in SHA Probus 3,2 and in [Aur. Vict.] epit. Caes. 37,1 is probably fictitious. P.'s career prior to his elevation to emperor in the East in the summer of 276 (Zos. 1,64) (in SHA Probus he is confused with a dux Tenagino P.) is unknown. During his six-year reign ( cos. I-III 277-279, cos. IV 281, cos. V 282) he fought first on the Rhine against the Alamanni, then against the Franci, Burgundiones an…

Aemilianus

(404 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[No German version] I. Greek Degani, Enzo (Bologna) Bibliography GA 2,1,11 f.; 2,2,13-16. [German version] [I 1] Epigrammatic poet of Nicaea. Author of three interesting epigrams from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus: the astounding lament of a ship that -- having escaped shipwreck -- returns to port ‘with a cargo of corpses’ (Anth. Pal. 9,218), and two descriptions of works of art, the first (Anth. Pal. 7,623) a famous painting by Aristides of Thebes (Plin. HN 35,98), the second (Anth. Pal. 9,756) seems to illustrate …

Aurelius

(2,999 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Widespread plebeian gentilicium (ThlL 2,1482-87), which in ancient etymology is derived from Sabine and was derived via the older form Auselius from sol (sun) (Fest. p. 22; from this the modern derivation from the Sabine * ausel over Etruscan usil ‘Sun god’, cf. [1. 36; 2. 468]). The family attained noble status in the 1st Punic War with Aur. [3] and provides numerous consuls in the 2nd cent. BC from the branches of the Cottae, Orestae and Scauri. This, however, does not completely explain the building stages and assignment of various viae Aureliae in the 2nd cent. [3; 4]. The late R…

Caracalla

(889 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] (Nickname based on his Celtic robe; originally, he was called Bassianus, Cass. Dio 78,9,3) = M. Aurelius Antoninus Caesar (from AD 195, ILS 8805; RIU 3,840) = M. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus (from AD 198, cf. [1]). Born on 4 April AD 188 in Lyons as the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna (Cass. Dio 78,6,5; cf. 77,10,2; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 21,1; SHA Sept. Sev. 3,9; differing information elsewhere). He accompanied his father to the east from the middle of 19…

Celerinus

(40 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Prefect of Egypt. In AD 283 after the death of  Carus he turned down the imperial rank offered to him by his soldiers (Claudian. Epithal. Palladii et Celerinae 25,70-82). PIR2 C 635. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)

Bonosus

(199 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Appointed emperor in AD 280 Appointed emperor in Cologne, together with Proculus, in AD 280, soon thereafter defeated by  Probus (Eutr. 9,17,1; Aur. Vict. Caes. 37,3; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 37,2). His vita in the  Historia Augusta (Probus), is largely fictitious; no genuine coins of his are known. PIR2 B 146; PLRE 1, 163 no.1. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Consul in AD 344 Flavius B. was consul in AD 344 but was acknowledged only in the West and even there he is attested only until April/May. According to [1], however, he …

Albinus

(861 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Zanoncelli, Luisa (Milan)
Cognomen of the Clodii, Decii, Iunii, Lucceii, Mummii, Pescennii, Postumii (fictitious name in Mart. 4,37,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Of Smyrna. Platonic philosopher of the 2nd cent. AD (Ἀλβῖνος; Albînos) of Smyrna. Platonic philosopher of the 2nd cent. AD, who was counted among the ‘top Platonists’ by Proclus [2. 18; see 2. 20]. A student of the Platonist  Gaius, he taught in Smyrna in AD 150, where he was heard by the physician Galen (Gal., Scripta minora 2,97,8 ff. Mueller). A. wrote commentaries on Plato's Timaeus, ‘Republic’ and Phaedo [2. 18, 50, 15…

Clodius

(2,871 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Glock, Andreas (Bremen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
In the 1st cent. BC, vernacular form of the gentilicium  Claudius (C. [I 4] and  Clodia), since late Republican period also an independent family name. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., C. Praefect of M. Brutus in 43/42 BC In 43/42 BC follower and prefect of M. Brutus; he murdered C. Antonius [I 3]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C., Sex. Henchman of P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, Sex. Cloelius [2] Henchman of P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, Sex.  Cloelius [2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] C. Aesopus Tragic actor, 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC Tragic …

Capito

(156 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Roman cognomen; see also Ateius, Fonteius. [German version] [1] Orator of the Augustan period Orator of the Augustan period, praised by  Seneca the Elder because of his ability -- in contrast with  Cassius [III 2] Severus -- to distinguish clearly between the demands of declamations as opposed to those of legal speeches, with regards to their tone and presentation. According to Seneca's assessment, C.'s best orations were in no way inferior to those of the tetrad of the great declamators  Latro,  Fuscus,  Alb…

Iulianus

(4,648 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Epithet of many gentilicia [1]. Famous persons: the jurist Salvius I. [1]; the doctor I. [2]; the emperor I. [11], called ‘Apostata’; the bishops I. [16] of Aeclanum and I. [21] of Toledo. [German version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, born about AD 100 in North Africa, died about AD 170; he was a student of  Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) and the last head of the Sabinian law school (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., whose succession of offices is preserved in the inscription from Pupput, provi…

Eros

(805 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
(Ἔρως; Érōs). [German version] [1] Personification of sexual desire Greek personification of love as sexual desire (Latin Amor, Cupido). Usually, E. is regarded as being the son of  Aphrodite, in whose sphere of influence he represents a central figure.  Ares is named as his father (Simon. fr. 43B). Not mentioned in Homer, E.'s image in archaic poetry is developed into an expression of the complex and contradictory experience of individual love [1]: ‘limb-loosening’ conquerer of gods and men (Hes. Theog.…

Numerianus

(193 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Follower of Septimius Severus N. was a schoolteacher in Rome who, as a senator on commission from  Septimius Severus pretended to raise for him an army in Gaul. In fact he achieved considerable success in battle against the troops of  Clodius [II 1] Albinus. N. allegedly seized 70 million sesterces for Severus, after whose victory in AD 97 N. renounced all his privileges and was content with only a small maintenance pension (Cass. Dio 75,5). PIR2 N 198. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [German version] [2] Imp. Caes. M. Aurelius Numerius N. Augustus 3rd cent. AD emperor Roman e…

Capellianus

(62 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] As praetorian governor of Numidia in AD 238 (perhaps identical with the epigraphically attested legatus Augusti pro praetore L. Ovinius Pudens Capella, PIR2 O 189), with the legio III Augusta, he quelled the revolt in Gordiane (Herodian. 7,9,11; SHA Maximin. 19,20, Gord. 15-16; ILS 8499). PIR2 C 404. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography K.-H. Dietz, Senatus contra principem, 1980, 109ff.

Carus [1]

(428 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Rottler, Christoph (Tübingen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
(Κάρος, Κάκυρος; Káros, Kákyros). Celtiberian from Segeda, general of several Iberian tribes and towns that defeated the army of the consul Q.  Fulvius [I 17] Nobilior on 23/ 8/153 BC. The Roman prohibition of building a wall around Segeda caused the confrontation. C. was killed while pursuing the enemy (App. Ib. 45; Diod. Sic. 31,39; Flor. Epit. 1,34 [Megaravicus]).  Hispania Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] [2] Poet friend of Ovid A poet friend of  Ovid (Pont. 4,13 is addressed to him; 3,5 in the Tristiae, where the identity of the respective addressees is con…

Decius

(1,555 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
Plebeian nomen gentile, documented in the literary tradition since the 5th cent.; the most important family were the Decii Mures (D. [I 1-3]), possibly from Campania [1], whose self-sacrifice (partly unhistorical) in battle made them much quoted examples in the tradition. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] D. Mus, P. (Origin of the cognomen not known), in 352 BC, committee member dealing with a debt crisis in Rome (Liv. 7,21,6); as war tribune in 343, he is said to have saved the army of the consul A. Cornelius [I 22] Cossus Arvina from…

Elagabalus

(1,151 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert (Tübingen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Name of a deity Name of a deity, based on its earliest attestation (Palmyrene stele of Nazala, 1st cent. AD), it can be etymologically derived from lhbl (Hdn. 5,3,4: Elaiagabalos). Since lh is present in the status emphaticus, E. must be read as the ‘God Mountain’ [8. 503f.]. The image on the stele also speaks for this [1. 707]. The mountain signifies the citadel mountain of  Emesa (Ḥimṣ) with the temple of E. [6. 257f.; 8. 509f.], which is indicated in ancient descriptions (Avien. Descriptio orbis 1083-1093) …

Aiacius

(51 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] A. Modestus Crescentianus, Q. Participated as XV vir sacris faciundis in AD 204 in the ludi saeculares; he was praetorian imperial legate in Arabia. Cos. suff., legate of Germania superior in 209 and cos. II ord. in 228. PIR2 A 470. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography Eck, 81-82.

Cassius

(5,432 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (cf. Tac. Ann. 6,15,1), the representatives of whom have been known historically since the middle of the 3rd cent. BC. The most important family, especially in the 1st cent. BC, are the Cassii Longini. A patrician C. (around 500 BC, C. I 19) is rare. I. Republican age [German version] [I 1] C., C. Governor of Asia 89-88 BC Praetor 90 BC (?), in 89-88 governor of the province of Asia whence he, with M'. Aquillius [I 4], induced Nicomedes of Bithynia to attack  Mithridates (MRR 2,34). He then had to retreat from the victorious Mithridat…

Domitianus

(2,341 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor, born AD 51 Roman emperor; original name T. Flavius Domitianus = Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] A. Up to the death of Titus Born on 24 Oct. AD 51 in Rome; his parents were T. Flavius  Vespasianus and Flavia Domitilla. D. spent his childhood in Rome; he did not accompany his father Vespasian to Judaea. His life was first threatened in the 2nd half of 69 during the reign of Vitellius, when D.'s father had already been proclaimed emperor, and fightin…

Carinus

(218 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Imperator Caesar M.A. Carinus Augustus, the eldest son of  Carus, a brother of  Numerianus; around November AD 282, he was made Caesar and princeps iuventutis by his father, and in spring 283, when his father marched against the Persians, C. was elevated to Augustus. After his campaign against the Quadi (F. Gnecchi, I Medaglioni Romani 2, 1912, pl. 123, no. 8), he called himself Germanicus maximus, adding to that Persicus maximus after Carus' victory in the east, and also, for unknown reasons, Britannicu…
▲   Back to top   ▲