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Pöschl

(247 words)

Author(s): Bischof, Franz Xaver
[English Version] Pöschl, Thomas (2.3.1769 Höritz, Böhmerwald – 15.11.1837 Wien), Studium der Theol. in Wien und Linz, 1796 Priester und Kaplan in Braunau/Inn. Beeinflußt v.a. von M. Boos, J.E. Goßner und vom Grazer Erweckungsprediger Engelbert Maurer, vertrat P. endzeitlich-chiliastische Schwärmereien (Chiliasmus) in Predigt und Seelsorge, außerdem eine Teufelslehre, welche Napoleon I. als »lebendigen Teufel« bez. Weil seine Lehren zu Unruhen unter der Stadtbevölkerung führten, betrieb die bayeris…

Christine, Saint

(107 words)

Author(s): Bischof, Franz Xaver
[German Version] (of Bolsena; feast day Jul 24). Her cult has been attested since the 4th century in the catacombs of Bolsena (Latium) named after her, and she is portrayed on a mosaic in San Apollinare Nuovo (Ravenna). A legendary Greek passio (first attested in an Oxyrhynchos papyrus from the 5th cent.) and other, probably dependent, sources such as the Martyrologium Hieronymianum, which mention a martyr Christine from Tyre (Lebanon) on the same day, are at odds with this evidence. Franz Xaver Bischof Bibliography ActaSS Iul. V, 1727, 495–534 V. Fiocchi Nicolai, I cimiteri paleocrist…

Dalberg, Karl Theodor Anton Maria v.

(198 words)

Author(s): Bischof, Franz Xaver
[German Version] (Feb 8, 1744, Mannheim – Feb 10, 1817, Regensburg) became governor of Mainz in Erfurt in 1771 (becoming associated here with J.W. v. Goethe and F. v. Schiller, among others), head of the cathedral school in Würzburg in 1780, Electoral archbishop of Mainz and archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1802, as well as prince-bishop of Worms and…

Boos, Martin

(275 words)

Author(s): Bischof, Franz Xaver
[German Version] (Dec 25, 1762, Huttenried near Augsburg – Aug 29, 1825, Sayn near Bendorf/Rhein) studied theology at the University of Dillingen with, among others, J.M. Sailer, with whom he remained a lifelong friend. After consecration to the priesthood in 1786, he worked as a chaplain in the Bavarian Allgäu. With a propensity fo…

Pöschl, Thomas

(277 words)

Author(s): Bischof, Franz Xaver
[German Version] (Mar 2, 1769, Höritz, Bohemian Forest – Nov 15, 1837, Vienna). After studying theology at Vienna and Linz, Pöschl was ordained to the priesthood in 1796 and appointed chaplain in Braunau am Inn. Influenced especially by M. Boos, J.E. Goßner, and Engelbert Maurer, a revivalist preacher in Graz, Pöschl became an enthusiastic millennialist (Millenarianism) in his preaching and pastoral contacts; he also held a doctrine of the devil that called Napoleon a “living devil.” Because his t…

Castor, Saint

(112 words)

Author(s): Bischof, Franz Xaver
[German Version] (Saint's day: Feb 13). According to a vita from the High Middle Ages, Castor came from Aquitania and was a contemporary of Bishop Maximinus of Trier (died 346). He became priest and lived as a recluse in Karden (Mosel), where his remains were discovered under Bishop Weomad (died 791) and interred in the nearby Paulinus Church (renamed after Castor in ¶ the 10th/11th cent.); in 836, Archbishop Hetti (died 847) transferred some of them to the collegiate church built by him in Koblenz. Franz Xaver Bischof Bibliography ActaSS Febr. II, 1658, 662–666 MGH.SS II, 1829, 603 F. Pauly…

Bourrier, André Marie Lazare

(171 words)

Author(s): Bischof, Franz Xaver
[German Version] (Aug 31, 1852, Marseille – Sep 11, 1932, Marseille). The son of a tailor, in 1875 priest in the archbishopric of Marseille, he resigned his priestly office in 1895 and left the Catholic Church. After studies in Protestant theology in Paris (Baccalaureat in 1897), in 1897 he became a Reformed pastor in Sèvres-Bellevue (near Versailles). As such Bourrier sought in vain to set up in France a Protestantism-influenced national Catholic church, independent of Rome. His mouthpiece was the periodical, Le Chrétien Français (founded in 1897 and edited together with …

Feßler, Joseph

(213 words)

Author(s): Bischof, Franz Xaver
[German Version] (Dec 2, 1813, Lochau – Apr 25, 1872, St. Pölten), bishop of St. (Sankt) Pölten and council secretary. He became a priest in 1837, a schoolmaster in 1838/39, professor of church history and canon law in Brixen in 1842, in Vienna in 1852 (after 1856 only of canon law), assistant bishop and vicar general for Vorarlberg in Feldkirch (diocese of Brixen) in 1862. He was bishop of St. Pölten from 1865 to 1872, and secretary of Vatican I in 1869/70. A moderate infallibilist (infallibility…

Vatican I

(4,068 words)

Author(s): Bischof, Franz Xaver | Unterburger, Klaus | Klausnitzer, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. History, Process, Results 1. Annoucement and preparation. The idea of holding a general council for the church to assert its authority and its defensive stance against a modernity shaped by Enlightenment and revolution was first suggested to Pius IX during exile in Gaëta. The plan took shape after the pope – two days before the publication of the encyclical Quanta cura and the Syllabus on Dec 8, 1864, and in close connection with their condemnation of modern fallacies – carried out a first confidential consultation with the cardinals reg…

Expeditus, Saint

(475 words)

Author(s): Bischof, Franz Xaver | Betz, Hans Dieter
[German Version] I. General – II. Significance in the Voodoo Cult – III. Iconography I. General Saint Expeditus was a martyr whose existence and name are questionable. The Martyrologium Hieronymianum mentions him under the date Apr 19 as belonging to a group of Armenian martyrs about whom nothing further is known. His veneration can only be demonstrated from the 18th century on, in the 19th century primarily in Italy and France, sometimes in forms against which the Holy See intervened. According to Delehaye, Expeditus is probably a misspelling of Elpidius. Franz Xaver Bischof Bibliog…

Vaticanum I

(3,377 words)

Author(s): Bischof, Franz Xaver | Unterburger, Klaus | Klausnitzer, Wolfgang
[English Version] I. Geschichte, Prozeß, Ergebnisse 1.Ankündigung und Vorbereitung Die Idee eines Allg. Konzils zur kirchl. Selbstbehauptung im Zeichen der Autorität und Defensivhaltung gegen die durch Aufklärung und Revolution geprägte Moderne war erstmals 1849, während des Exils in Gaëta, an Pius IX. herangetragen worden. Gestalt gewann der Plan, nachdem der Papst zwei Tage vor der Publikation der Enzyklika »Quanta cura« und des »Syllabus« am 8.12.1864 und in engstem Zusammenhang mit der darin erfolg…