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Confession (of Faith)

(12,201 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Kreuzer, Siegfried | Reumann, John | Staats, Reinhart | Holze, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Bible – III. Church History – IV. Systematics – V. Practical Theology – VI. Law – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religions The term confession refers to various phenomena, including the confession of faith and of sin. A confession of faith can be understood as an officially sanctioned, formulaic summary of the central doctrines of a religious or a confessional community (“denomination”). Recited in cultic procedu…


(1,371 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Mette, Norbert | Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term socialization is used in various academic fields, especially sociology, (social) psychology, and the educational discipline…


(347 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[German Version] denotes the individual, subjecti…

Callenberg, Johann Heinrich

(220 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 12, 1694, Molschleben near Gotha – Jul 16, 1760, Halle on the Saale). From humble origins, Callenberg was given a pietistic upbringing at the Gotha Gymnasium under G. Vockerodt. He began studying oriental languages and theology at Halle on th…

Bachmann, Traugott

(349 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 25, 1865, Caana bei Niesky, Oberlausitz – Feb 27, 1948, Niesky). Of rural background, Bachmann attended the missionary school of the Bohemian/Moravian Brethren (II) in Niesky from 1890 to 1892,…


(2,685 words)

Author(s): Dehn, Ulrich | Bochinger, Christoph | Thiede, Werner | Thiele, Christoph
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Both the etymology and the usage of the word sect are disputed. Derivation from Latin secare (“separate”) is possible, as is derivation from secta (from sectus, sequi, “school of thought”). English uses the word in the latter neutral sense, whereas the German equivalent Sekte is usually a pejorative exonym, corresponding to Eng. cult. M. Weber (see II below) distinguished between voluntary membership “of those who are religiously and morally qualified” in …


(1,341 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
Etymology 1. ‘Millenarianism’ is derived from the Latin mille (‘thousand’) and annus (‘year’), and denotes the expectation of a ‘thousand-year reign.’ ‘Chiliasm,’ with the same meaning, is derived from the Greek chílioi (‘thousand’). The original theological concept was taken over from other disciplines, and bound up with various kin…


(1,791 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
Determination of the Concept 1. ‘Pietism’ (from Lat.


(353 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
‘Spirituality’ is a fashionable word, used in contemporary religious discourse for a spiritual attitude toward life, a style of piety. It occurs in the Christian and the non-Christian areas alike. This diffuse application is connected with a twin history. From the French ( spiritualité), the word has been taken over into other languages, especially so since the 1960s, by Catholic theologians, who wished to describe certain forms of piety actively lived: from a contemplative monastic life (for laity, as well, who occasionally share this life, and integrate it into their daily lives), to a political and social engagement from Christian motives, for example in the ‘spirituality of liberation’ (G. Gutiérrez; → Liberation Theology). Behind all of this stands the Latin adjective …


(1,301 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Mette, Norbert | Schweitzer, Friedrich
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Der Begriff »S.« wird in unterschiedlichen wiss. Kontexten, v.a. in der Soziologie, (Sozial-) Psychologie und den Erziehungswiss. (Pädagogik), verwendet. Bereits 1907 von É.  Durkheim gebraucht, erlebte er in den 60er Jahren eine erste, in den 80er Jahren eine zweite Phase starker Rezeption. Während zunächst v.a. die Prägung der Individuen durch die Gesellschaft im Vordergrund stand, ist in jüngerer Zeit überwiegend von der Wechselwirkung zw. Eigenakti…


(317 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[English Version] . Der Begriff »R.« bez. die individuelle, subjektive Seite des Religiösen – im Unterschied zu »Religion« als einem objektiv Gegebenen, zu professionellen Theologien, Dogmen und Lehrmeinungen oder zu rel. Institutionen, Kirchen und Religionsgemeinschaften. Die Bedeu…


(2,411 words)

Author(s): Dehn, Ulrich | Bochinger, Christoph | Thiede, Werner | Thiele, Christoph
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Nicht nur die philol. Herleitung, auch der Gebrauch des Wortes S. selbst ist umstritten. Die Herkunft von secare (»abspalten«) ist denkbar, ebenso die von secta (von sectus, sequi, »Schulrichtung«). Im letzteren wertneutralen Sinne wird »sect« im Englischen verwendet, während dem dt. (pejorativen) »S.« meist der engl. »cult« als polemische Fremdbez. entspricht. Max Weber (s.u. II.) unterschied zw. Freiwilligkeit, Exklusivität…