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(2,054 words)

Author(s): Bohn, Robert
1. Ursprünge der Freibeuterei im mittelalterlichen KaperrechtDie Freibeuterei ist ein Phänomen der Seefahrtsgeschichte, dessen Entstehung und Entwicklung aufs engste mit der frühnzl. überseeischen Expansion der europ. Mächte verknüpft ist. Ihre Wurzeln liegen in der ma. Kaperfahrt ziviler Handelsschiffe, die als ein allgemein anerkanntes, legitimes Mittel von Seekriegen zu einer Zeit galt, in der es noch keine permanenten, staatlichen Kriegsflotten (Marine) gab.Der zivile Kaperfahrer handelte in obrigkeitlichem Auftrag und war durch die Ausstattung mit e…
Date: 2019-11-19


(843 words)

Author(s): Bohn, Robert
1. Begriff Wie die Freibeuterei war das Korsarentum eng mit staatlich bzw. fürstlich gefördertem Seeraub verknüpft (Freibeuter). Der Begriff leitet sich aus dem ital. corsa (»Beutezug«, von lat. cursus) her. Mit der Insel Korsika hat die Bezeichnung nichts zu tun. Seinen Schwerpunkt hatte das Korsarentum v. a. in der westl. Mittelmeerhälfte, weshalb der Begriff außer ins Italienische ( corsaro) auch in die anderen dortigen Sprachen Eingang gefunden hat (franz. corsaire; span. corsario; portug. corsari).Robert Bohn2. MaltaHatte es im Mittelmeerraum schon seit der Antike Pirate…
Date: 2019-11-19


(913 words)

Author(s): Bohn, Robert
1. Concept Like privateering, corsair activity was closely related to maritime piracy sponsored by states or rulers (Privateer). The term derives from the Italian  corsa (“raid”, from the Latin  cursus), and has nothing to do with the island of Corsica. Corsair activity was mainly focused in the western half of the Mediterranean, so that the term entered not only Italian ( corsaro) but also the other languages of that region (French corsaire; Spanish  corsario; Portuguese  corsário).Robert Bohn2. MaltaThere had been piracy and privateering in the Mediterranean since A…
Date: 2019-10-14


(2,206 words)

Author(s): Bohn, Robert
1. Origins of privateering in medieval right of seizurePrivateering was a phenomenon of seafaring history whose origins and development were inextricably bound up with the overseas expansionism of the European powers in the early modern period. Its roots lay in the medieval practice of capturing merchant vessels, which was generally recognized as a legitimate tactic of naval warfare in an era before the advent of the permanent, state battle fleet (Navy).The civilian privateer acted in an official capacity, licenced by the “letter of marque” issued to him by …
Date: 2021-03-15


(672 words)

Author(s): Bohn, Robert
Denmark Constitutional monarchy, ruler Christian X (ruled 1912–1947). Since the annexation of Schleswig-Holstein (1867) by the Prussian State, and the measures of Germanization in North Schleswig, the mood in Denmark had been decidedly anti-German. The army and navy were mobilized at the outbreak of war, owing to fears that, because of its control of access to routes to the Baltic, the country might become the target of British or German military operations. The Royal Navy, however, exercised res…


(696 words)

Author(s): Bohn, Robert
Sweden Constitutional monarchy, King Gustav V (r. 1907–1950). The foreign and security policy of Swedish governments and the political elites developed between 1914 and 1918 from initially strong support for the German Reich to a gradual turn towards the Entente Powers, particularly Great Britain. Throughout those four years, however, political life was constantly under the shadow of Russia, felt in Sweden to be the traditional enemy. Many Swedes still failed to come to terms with the loss of Fin…


(529 words)

Author(s): Bohn, Robert
Norway Constitutional monarchy under Regent Haakon VII (r. 1905–1957). Norway’s attitude to the World War is only understandable in view of the fact that Norway had only achieved independence from Sweden in 1905, and that Great Britain was Norway’s most important guarantor nation. These security policy considerations, the mainstay of Norway’s foreign policy, were strengthened by a corresponding trade policy orientation. The war having begun, Norway followed Sweden’s lead on August 8, 1914, by iss…