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Skepticism

(1,332 words)

Author(s): Fricke, Christel | Bormuth, Matthias | Rudolph, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Philosophy The term skepticism denotes an attitude informed by doubts regarding certain beliefs. In the realm of philosophy, these doubts have to do primarily with the existence or knowableness of the external world and the knowableness or motivating force of moral norms. Since ancient Greece, a distinction has been made between academic skepticism and Pyrrhonian skepticism. The former was cultivated at Plato’s Academy (I) and used against the defenders of dogmatism; it argued the …

Dying

(2,372 words)

Author(s): Bormuth, Matthias | Henning, Christian | Gestrich, Reinhold
[German Version] I. Biology and Medicine – II. Dogmatics – III. Ethics – IV. Practical Theology I. Biology and Medicine Ancient and medieval medicine was, for the most part, only interested in dying from the point of view of the prognostic signs of death. It was not until the advent of modern science that the determining of the fact of death came to be seen as a medical concern, an interest that was largely stimulated by the discussion over the phenomenon of apparent death in the 18th century. On the diagnostic side, particular attention was paid to livores marks ( livores mortis) and muscu…