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Archilochos

(1,615 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
von Paros und Thasos, einer der frühesten bekannten Dichter elegischer, iambischer und epodischer Dichtung. [English version] A. Leben und Dichtung A., Sohn des Telesikles, der um 675 v. Chr. eine parische Kolonie nach Thasos führte [1], dichtete ca. 670- 640 [2; 3], vgl. die Erwähnung des Gyges (gest. ca. 652) als exemplum in 19W (= IEG) und das Unglück der Stadt Magnesia in 20W (wahrscheinlich ihre Zerstörung durch Treres, vgl. Kallinos 5W bei Strabon, 14,1,40). Die Sonnenfinsternis in 122W kann, muß aber nicht, die vom 6. April 648 sein. Elegien: Von den spärlichen Resten sprech…

Aristokles

(479 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἀριστοκλῆς). [English version] [1] aus Messene Peripatetiker, frühe Kaiserzeit Peripatetiker der frühen Kaiserzeit. Seine Hauptschrift, Περὶ φιλοσοφίας in 10 Büchern, enthielt eine kritische Übersicht über die Lehren aller Schulen; Auszüge bei Eus. pr. ev. 14-15. Andere ihm bisher zugeschriebene Lehren gehören dem Aristoteles aus Mytilene. Wegen der Verwechslung mit letzterem hielt man A. für einen Lehrer des Alexandros von Aphrodisias und setzte seine Lebenszeit ins späte 2. Jh.; tatsächlich scheint er erheblich früher gelebt zu haben. Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) Bibliograp…

Klonas

(80 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[English version] (Κλονᾶς). Dichter und Musiker, der sowohl von Tegea als auch von Theben in Anspruch genommen wird; vielleicht frühes 7. Jh.v.Chr., da er zw. Terpandros und Archilochos eingeordnet wurde (Ps.-Plut. De musica 1133a). Herakleides Pontikos (fr. 157 Wehrli = Ps.-Plut. ebd. 1131f-1132c, vgl. Poll. 4,79) schreibt ihm elegische und hexametrische Gedichte sowie die Einführung von nómoi für den vom aulós begleiteten Gesang (αὐλῴδια/ aulṓdia) und von Prozessionsliedern (προσόδια/ prosódia) zu. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography M.L. West, Ancient Greek Music, 199…

Adaios

(267 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἀδαῖος, lat. Adaeus). [English version] [1] Dynast in Thrakien (Mitte des 3. Jh. v. Chr.) Dynast im südöstl. Thrakien, Mitte des 3. Jh. v. Chr., wohl Nachkomme eines von Philipp II. eingesetzten maked. Statthalters. Er prägte mehrere Emissionen von Bronzemünzen. Wohl identisch mit dem in Kypsela regierenden A. (Athen. 11,468 f.) und dem von Ptolemaios III. hingerichteten A. (Pomp. Trog. prol. 27; SEG 34, 1984, 878). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography K. Buraselis, Das hell. Makedonien und die Ägäis, 1982, 122-123, 139. [English version] [2] maked. Epigrammatiker Maked. Epigram…

Chrestos

(79 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[English version] (Χρηστός) aus Byzantion. Sophist, Schüler und Nacheiferer des Herodes Atticus; lehrte in Athen. Er hatte 100 Schüler, darunter viele bedeutende; trunksüchtig; er lehnte den Versuch der Athener ab, ihn kurz nach 180 zum Nachfolger des Hadrianos auf dem Lehrstuhl der Rhet. in Athen zu machen. Er starb im Alter von ca. 50 Jahren (Philostr. soph. 2,11). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography I. Avotins, The Holders of the Chairs of Rhetoric at Athens, in: HSPh 79, 1975, 320-1.

Zenobius

(737 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ζηνόβιος/ Zēnóbios). [German version] [1] General of Mithridates [6] VI, 1st cent. BC General of Mithridates [6] VI in the first of the Mithridatic Wars (89-85 BC). He captured Chios in 86 BC and organized, despite the payment of the imposed fine of 2,000 talents, deportation of the entire population to the Black Sea (App. Mithr. 180-187; Colchis: Ath. 6,266), in order to warn other cities against secession (cf. Syll.3 785, lines 13-15). During a subsequent stay in Ephesus (still in 86: [1. 172 f.]), however, he was killed by the citizens, who feared a simila…

Nicostratus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Νικόστρατος; Nikóstratos). [German version] [1] Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen [1]. According to  Hom. Il. 3,175 and Hom. Od. 4,12, Menelaus and Helen had only a daughter (Hermione, cf. Eur. Andr. 898; Lycoph. 851), but in another tradition they also had a son (Hes. Fr. 175,2 M.-W.; Soph. El. 539). Later authors tried to resolve this discrepancy by making N. the son of a slave (Paus. 2,18,6). In Amyclae, N. and Megapenthes [2] were portrayed on horseback, as a counterpart to t…

Philagrus

(129 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Φίλαγρος; Phílagros). Sophist from Cilicia, regarded as arrogant and irritable (Philostr. VS 2,8), possibly related to Q. Veranius Philagrus of Cibyra [1]; pupil of Lollianus [2], probably at Athens, where he quarrelled with Herodes [16] Atticus and his pupils. He may have been Lucian's (Lucianus [1]) target in the latter's Lexiphánēs (cf. [2]). Offered the chair of Greek rhetoric at Rome (in the 170s (?) AD), he died either in Italy or at sea (Philostr. VS 2,8). His pupils included Phoenix (ibid.). Artem. 4,1 (p. 242,11-13 Pack…

Evenus

(688 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Εὔηνος, Εύηνός; Eúēnos, Euēnós) [1] of Paros [German version] A. Personal Data Eratosthenes distinguishes between two elegiac poets from Paros, both named E. (Harpocr. s.v. Εὔηνος 139,15 Dindorf), others maintain that there had only been one [1]. Plato mentions an E. of Paros, a poet and ‘philosopher’ (Pl. Phd. 60d; 61b), a teacher of political rhetoric around 400 BC (Pl. Ap. 20a-b), who had ‘discovered’ a number of tropes (Pl. Phdr. 267a). Both his language and the subject matter of some of the extant fra…

Damocrates

(60 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Δαμοκράτης; Damokrátēs).   [German version] (M.?) Servilius D. Freedman of M. Servilius ( cos. ord. AD 3) whose daughter he cured (Plin. HN 24,7,28). Under Nero and Vespasian he wrote prescriptions in iambic trimeters in the didactic tradition of  Apollodorus [7]; some of these are extant in  Galen. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography Edition: F. Cats Bussemaker, Poetae bucolici et didactici, 1862.

Theodotus

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Et al.
(Θεόδοτος; Theódotos). [German version] [1] Greek architect, c.370 BC Mentioned several times in the construction records for the temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus as its architect; his origins are as unknown as his subsequent whereabouts. T.’ salary during the project amounted to 365 drachmae per year, together with further payments of unknown object. It is uncertain whether he is the same person as the sculptor T. named in IG IV2 102 (B 1 line 97) as having, for 2,340 drachmae, fashioned the acroteria for the pediment; it is possible that the name T. has been in…

Philostratus

(3,230 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος/ Philóstratos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, son of Dionysius of Colonus, known from inscriptions (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) and mentions by Demosthenes [2]. In the 90s, while still a young man, he provided lodging for the lover of his friend Lysias (Dem. Or. 59,22f.); in 366/5, he was among the accusers of Chabrias in the Oropus trial; later he gained a victory as choregos with a choir of boys at the Dionysia (Dem. Or. 21,64); in 342, he was trierarch; between 343 and 340, he testified as a witness in t…

Second Sophistic

(2,887 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] I. Concept A term often used by modern scholarship, particularly for the Greek culture (esp. literary culture) during the Roman Empire between AD 60 and AD 230 when 'Sophistic declamation' (μελέτη/melétē) became one of the most prestigious cultural activities in the Greek world. Philostratus (Philostr.VS 1 praefatio 481, cf. 1,18,507) first uses (and, it seems, coined) the term 'Second Sophistic' to distinguish the declamatory conventions that he claims were introduced by Aeschines ( i.e., for example, the adoption of 'personae' of oligarchs, tyrants o…

Aristides

(3,776 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ἀριστείδης; Aristeídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician and srategos (beginning of the 5th cent. BC) Of Athens, son of Lysimachus. He was one of the most prominent politicians and strategoi of Athens at the time of the Persian Wars. In the battle of Marathon, he probably served as a strategos. In 489/488 BC, he was the eponymous archon (Plut. Aristides 1,2, cf. IG I3 1031). In 482 BC, he was ostrazised ( Ostraka) (Hdt. 8,79; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 22,7; Plut. Aristides 7,1 ff.). His rivalry with  Themistocles, documented already in Herodotus (8,79), …

Cleobuline

(49 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Κλεοβουλίνη). (Probably fictive) daughter of  Cleobulus [1] of Lindus, to whom riddles in an elegiac distichon (Fr. 1-2 West) or a single hexameter (Fr. 3 W.) have been attributed since the late 5th cent. BC (Dissoi logoi 3,10 = Fr. 2 W.). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)

Chrestus

(81 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Χρηστός; Chrēstós) from Byzantium. Sophist; pupil and emulator of  Herodes Atticus; taught in Athens. He had 100 pupils, among them many of significance; an alcoholic; he declined the attempt of the Athenians shortly after 180 to appoint him as successor to Hadrianus as professor of rhetoric in Athens. He died at c. 50 years of age (Philostr. VS 2,11). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography I. Avotins, The Holders of the Chairs of Rhetoric at Athens, in: HSPh 79, 1975, 320-1.

Simylus

(202 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Σίμυλος/ Símylos). [German version] [1] Poet of the New Comedy, 3rd cent. BC Poet of the New Comedy, victorious at the Lenaea in 284 BC with his play Ἐφεσία/Ephesía ('The Girl of Ephesus') [1. test. 1]. Pollux also lists the comedy Μεγαρική/Megarikḗ ('The Girl of Megara'), which according to an uncertain expansion of the list of Dionysia victors was supposed to have been performed in 185 as 'Old Comedy' [1. test. 2]. It is equally uncertain whether two and a half iambic trimeters cited by Theophilus of Antioch are attributable to the comic poet S. [1. fr. 2] (cf. S. [2]). Hidber, Thomas (Berne) B…

Ananius

(83 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] Ionian iambographer (?  c. 6th cent. BC). Athenaeus quotes four choliambic fragments: three in trimeters and one in nine tetrameters (9W, the longest), on the most appropriate foods for the respective season. Athenaeus ascribes 2W either to A. or Hipponax; Stobaeus ascribes 3W to Hipponax, and the scholiast of Arist. Ran. 659 ff. that ascribes to A. which Dionysus ascribes to Hipponax, in which there is an underlying confusion in ascribing it to about 406/5 BC. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography IEG 2,34-36.

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Quirinus

(910 words)

Author(s): Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] Roman god Roman deity Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) [German version] A. Name The etymology of the name (Q. from * co-uir-inus as with Quirites from * co-uirites, 'the totality of the citizens') makes its bearer the protector of the Roman citizenry. The age and importance of Q. are documented by the mention of his flamen ( F lamines ) in fourth position of the priestly hierarchy ( R ex sacrorum ) transmitted in Fest. 299 f. L. Nevertheless, his nature remains opaque: His origin is connected with the founding of the city of Ro…
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