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Nicetes

(317 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Νικέτης; Nikét ēs). [German version] [1] Greek rhetor at Rome, Augustan period Greek rhetor active at Rome in the Augustan period, known solely through several references by Seneca the Elder. Most of these report brief judgements and pithy remarks on fictional disputes (Sen. Controv 1,4,12; 1,5,9; 1,7,18; 1,8,13; 9,2,29; 9,6,18; 10,5,23); others exemplify the peculiarity of his teaching method (ibid. 9,2,23: N. only declaimed himself, and did not listen to students' practice speeches) and indicate his evid…

Theognis

(1,349 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Θέογνις/ Théognis). [German version] [1] Elegiac poet, 6th cent. BC Elegiac poet, 6th cent. BC Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) [German version] I. Life and textual history T. was born in Megara [2] in Greece (Didymus in schol. Plat. leg. 630a), hardly Megara [3] in Sicily (Suda Θ 136 and probably Plat. l.c.,), ca. 544-1 BC (Suda l.c.; acc. to [17] 65-71 ca. 630-600). Plat. l.c. (citing El. 77-8) and Isoc. Or. 3,42-3 first name T. as a good adviser, and according to Stob. 4,29,53 Xen. wrote On Theognis and cited El. 22-3 and 183-190. T.'s poems were probably sung at 5th and 4th cent. B…

Tettix

(214 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
(Τέττιξ, lit. “cicada”). [German version] [1] Founder of a city at the entrance to Hades A Cretan said to have founded a city on the Taenarum near the supposed entrance to Hades: there the man who killed Archilochus in battle, Callondas, nicknamed Corax, was sent by Delphi to placate Archilochus' ghost (Plut. De sera 17.615E, whence Suda α 4112, probably via Ael. (fr. 80)). The hypothesis of [1] that Archilochus called himself T. remains unproven, in spite of Lucian, Pseudol. 1 and Archil. fr. 223  West. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography 1 Göber, s. v. T. (1), RE 5 A, 1111. [German version] [2…

Hadrianus

(554 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Ἁδριανός; Hadrianós) [1]. [German version] [1] Rhetor Sophist from Tyre, at 18 years of age a favourite pupil of  Herodes Atticus (Philostr. VS 2,10,585-586). With  Flavius Boethus (also from Phoenicia) he attended the anatomy lectures of  Galen in Rome in AD 162-166 (Gal. 14,627; 629 Kuhn). He may perhaps have been the target of mockery in Lucian's Pseudologístēs [1]. He taught in Ephesus (Philostr. VS 2,23,605) and (163-169) [2] honoured his patron there, the consular Cn.  Claudius [II 64] Severus, with a statue and a poem [3; 4]. From 176 at the l…

Quirinus

(852 words)

Author(s): Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[English version] [1] röm. Gott Röm. Gott. Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) [English version] A. Name Die Etym. des Namens (Q. von * co-uir-inus wie Quirites von * co-uirites, “die Gesamtheit der Bürger”) macht seinen Träger zum Beschützer der röm. Bürgerschaft. Alter und Bed. des Q. sind belegt durch die Erwähnung seines flamen ( flamines ) an vierter Stelle der bei Fest. 299 f. L. überl. Priesterhierarchie ( rex sacrorum ). Gleichwohl bleibt sein Wesen im Dunkeln: Seine Herkunft ist mit der Gründung der Stadt Rom und der ersten röm. Bürgersch…

Kallinikos

(434 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basel) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Καλλίν(ε)ικος: “Der edle Sieger”). [English version] [1] Beiname des Herakles Beiname des Herakles (Eur. Herc. 582; Aristeid. or. 40,15; OGIS 53; Iscrizioni di Cos ED 180,28f.; SEG 28,616), bei Archil. fr. 324 IEG in einem als Siegeslied in Olympia verwendeten Hymnus (Pind. O. 9,1ff. mit schol.; nach schol. Aristoph. Av. 1764 in Paros gedichtet: vgl. IG XII5, 234); zuerst wohl für Herakles als siegreichen Krieger verwendet (vgl. den aitiologischen Mythos bei Apollod. 2,135), später oft in einem apotropäischen Epigramm (Preger, Inscr. Graecae metricae 213; EpGr 1138). Willi, Andr…

Adaios

(267 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἀδαῖος, lat. Adaeus). [English version] [1] Dynast in Thrakien (Mitte des 3. Jh. v. Chr.) Dynast im südöstl. Thrakien, Mitte des 3. Jh. v. Chr., wohl Nachkomme eines von Philipp II. eingesetzten maked. Statthalters. Er prägte mehrere Emissionen von Bronzemünzen. Wohl identisch mit dem in Kypsela regierenden A. (Athen. 11,468 f.) und dem von Ptolemaios III. hingerichteten A. (Pomp. Trog. prol. 27; SEG 34, 1984, 878). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography K. Buraselis, Das hell. Makedonien und die Ägäis, 1982, 122-123, 139. [English version] [2] maked. Epigrammatiker Maked. Epigram…

Zenobius

(737 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ζηνόβιος/ Zēnóbios). [German version] [1] General of Mithridates [6] VI, 1st cent. BC General of Mithridates [6] VI in the first of the Mithridatic Wars (89-85 BC). He captured Chios in 86 BC and organized, despite the payment of the imposed fine of 2,000 talents, deportation of the entire population to the Black Sea (App. Mithr. 180-187; Colchis: Ath. 6,266), in order to warn other cities against secession (cf. Syll.3 785, lines 13-15). During a subsequent stay in Ephesus (still in 86: [1. 172 f.]), however, he was killed by the citizens, who feared a simila…

Evenus

(688 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Εὔηνος, Εύηνός; Eúēnos, Euēnós) [1] of Paros [German version] A. Personal Data Eratosthenes distinguishes between two elegiac poets from Paros, both named E. (Harpocr. s.v. Εὔηνος 139,15 Dindorf), others maintain that there had only been one [1]. Plato mentions an E. of Paros, a poet and ‘philosopher’ (Pl. Phd. 60d; 61b), a teacher of political rhetoric around 400 BC (Pl. Ap. 20a-b), who had ‘discovered’ a number of tropes (Pl. Phdr. 267a). Both his language and the subject matter of some of the extant fra…

Quirinus

(910 words)

Author(s): Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] Roman god Roman deity Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) [German version] A. Name The etymology of the name (Q. from * co-uir-inus as with Quirites from * co-uirites, 'the totality of the citizens') makes its bearer the protector of the Roman citizenry. The age and importance of Q. are documented by the mention of his flamen ( F lamines ) in fourth position of the priestly hierarchy ( R ex sacrorum ) transmitted in Fest. 299 f. L. Nevertheless, his nature remains opaque: His origin is connected with the founding of the city of Ro…

Aspasios

(550 words)

Author(s): Sharples, Robert (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[English version] [1] Aristoteleskommentator, 2. Jh. Aristoteleskommentator, 1. Hälfte des 2. Jh. n.Chr., Lehrer des Herminos. Seine Werke wurden in Plotins Schule gelesen (Porph. Vita Plotini 14). A.' Komm. über die ‘Nikomachische Ethik [1] ist der früheste durchgehende Komm. zu einer aristotelische Abhandlung, der erh. ist, und beeinflußte die Behandlung der “gemeinen Bücher” 5-7 als nikomacheisch, obwohl die These von [2. 29-36], daß er verantwortlich war für den Transfer dieser Bücher, von der ‘Eu…

Euenos

(606 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[1] von Paros [English version] A. Zur Person Eratosthenes unterscheidet zwei Elegiker aus Paros namens E. (Harpokr. s.v. Εὔηνος 139,15 Dindorf), andere behaupten, es gäbe nur einen [1]. Platon erwähnt einen E. von Paros, einen Dichter und “Philosophen” (Plat. Phaid. 60d; 61b), der um 400 v.Chr. polit. Rhet. lehrte (Plat. apol. 20a-b) und einige Tropen “entdeckte” (Plat. Phaidr. 267a). Sowohl Sprache als auch Themenwahl einiger Fragmente, z.B. Mäßigung beim Trinken (2 Gentili-Prato/West, evtl. eine Antw…

Adaeus

(272 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἀδαῖος; Adaîos). [German version] [1] Dynast in south-eastern Thrace, (middle of the 3rd cent. BC) Dynast in south-eastern Thrace, middle of the 3rd cent. BC, probably offspring of a Macedonian governor appointed by  Philip II. He minted several emissions of bronze coins. Probably identical to A., who reigned in Cypsela (Athen. 11,468 f.) and A., who was executed by  Ptolemaeus III (Pomp. Trog. prol. 27; SEG 34, 1984, 878). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography K. Buraselis, Das hell. Makedonien und die Ägäis, 1982, 122-123, 139. [German version] [2] Macedonian epigrammatist Maced…

Lesbonax

(349 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Λεσβῶναξ; Lesbônax). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian Greek grammarian, dates uncertain (perhaps before the end of the 2nd cent. AD). Author of a work on rhetorical figures (Περὶ σχημάτων; Perì schēmátōn) that is extant in two different excerpts (there is no basis for equating him with the orator L. of Mytilene). In it, L. describes a series of grammatical peculiarities ( schḗmata, ‘figures’), i.e. changes in the normal form of speech, which are demonstrated with examples primarily from Homer. There is no Atticist influence at all: the principal sou…

Callinicus

(455 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Καλλίν(ε)ικος; Kallín(e)ikos: ‘The noble victor’). [German version] [1] Epithet of Heracles Epithet of  Heracles (Eur. Herc. 582; Aristid. Or. 40.15; OGIS 53; Iscrizioni di Cos ED 180,28ff.; SEG 28.616), according to Archil. fr. 324 IEG in a hymn used as a victory song in Olympia (Pind. Ol. 9,1ff. with schol.; according to schol. Aristoph. Av. 1764 composed in Paros: cf. IG XII5, 234); probably first used for Heracles as a victorious warrior (cf. the aetiologic myth in Apollod. 2.135), later often in an apotropaic epigram (Preger, Inscr. Graecae metricae 213; EpGr 1138). Willi, Andrea…

Aspasius

(588 words)

Author(s): Sharples, Robert (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] Commentator on Aristotle Commentator on Aristotle, 1st half of the 2nd cent. AD; teacher of  Herminus. His works were read in the school of Plotinus (Porph. Vita Plotini 14). A.' commentary on the ‘Nicomachean Ethics [1] is the earliest surviving extended commentary on an Aristotelian text, and influenced the treatment of the ‘common books’ 5-7 as Nicomachean; although the theory in [2. 29-36] that he was responsible for the inclusion of these books has been questioned by the ‘Eud…

Solon

(2,951 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Σόλων/ Sólōn). [1] S. of Athens Poet, legislator, c. 600 BC [German version] I. Life griech. Gesetzgeber, um 600 v. Chr. S. (b. c. 640 BC), an Athenian of the family of the Medontidae, supposedly related through the maternal line with Peisistratus [4], the most important Greek legislator (alongside the legendary Spartan Lycurgus [4]) of the Archaic period and the first prominent Athenian poet. S. first emerged around 600 BC, when he successfully appealed for the conquest of Salamis [1] during the conflict with Megara…

Varus

(229 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Common Roman cognomen, initially an individual epithet ('bow-legged', cf. Plin. HN 11,254). Recorded for Alfenus [3; 5], Aternius, Licinius [I 46-47], Quinctilius [I 1-3; II 7-8], Vibius. The best known bearer was P. Quinctilius [II 7] V. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 149 Id., FCIR, 271 Kajanto, Cognomina, 242. [German version] [2] Sophist from Perge, c. 150 (Οὔαρος/ Oúaros). Sophist from Perge, c. AD 150, from a noble family, presumably the Plancii (Plancius; cf. [1. 22; 2]). Son of one Callic…

Herodes

(2,513 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἡρῴδης). [English version] [1] H.I. d.Gr. Geb. ca. 73 v.Chr., Sohn des Antipatros [4] und der Araberin Kypros. 47 zum Strategen von Galilaea ernannt, geriet er wegen eigenmächtiger Hinrichtung von Aufständischen mit dem Jerusalemer Sanhedrin in Konflikt. Der röm. Statthalter von Syrien Sex. Iulius [I 11] Caesar machte ihn zum Strategen von Koilesyrien und Samaria. 43 erwies er sich dem Caesarmörder C. Cassius [I 10] bei der Ausbeutung des Landes als unentbehrlich, ebenso 41, nach der Schlacht von Phi…

Philostratos

(3,042 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος). [English version] [1] att. Redner, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Att. Redner des 4. Jh.v.Chr., Sohn des Dionysios aus Kolonos, bekannt durch Inschr. (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) und aus Erwähnungen bei Demosthenes [2]. In den 90er Jahren beherbergte er als noch junger Mann die Geliebte des mit ihm befreundeten Lysias (Demosth. or. 59,22f.), 366/5 war er unter den Anklägern des Chabrias im Oropos-Prozeß, später siegte er als Chorege mit einem Knabenchor bei den Dionysien (Demosth. or. 21,64), 342 war er Trierarch, zw. 343 u…
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