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Nicostratus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Νικόστρατος; Nikóstratos). [German version] [1] Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen [1]. According to  Hom. Il. 3,175 and Hom. Od. 4,12, Menelaus and Helen had only a daughter (Hermione, cf. Eur. Andr. 898; Lycoph. 851), but in another tradition they also had a son (Hes. Fr. 175,2 M.-W.; Soph. El. 539). Later authors tried to resolve this discrepancy by making N. the son of a slave (Paus. 2,18,6). In Amyclae, N. and Megapenthes [2] were portrayed on horseback, as a counterpart to t…

Philagrus

(129 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Φίλαγρος; Phílagros). Sophist from Cilicia, regarded as arrogant and irritable (Philostr. VS 2,8), possibly related to Q. Veranius Philagrus of Cibyra [1]; pupil of Lollianus [2], probably at Athens, where he quarrelled with Herodes [16] Atticus and his pupils. He may have been Lucian's (Lucianus [1]) target in the latter's Lexiphánēs (cf. [2]). Offered the chair of Greek rhetoric at Rome (in the 170s (?) AD), he died either in Italy or at sea (Philostr. VS 2,8). His p…

Evenus

(688 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Εὔηνος, Εύηνός; Eúēnos, Euēnós) [1] of Paros [German version] A. Personal Data Eratosthenes distinguishes between two elegiac poets from Paros, both named E. (Harpocr. s.v. Εὔηνος 139,15 Dindorf), others maintain that there had only been one [1]. Plato mentions an E. of Paros, a poet and ‘philosopher’ (Pl. Phd. 60d; 61b), a teacher of political rhetoric around 400 BC (Pl. Ap. 20a-b), who had ‘discovered’ a number of tropes (Pl. Phdr. 267a). Both his language and the subject matter of some of the extant fra…

Damocrates

(60 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Δαμοκράτης; Damokrátēs).   [German version] (M.?) Servilius D. Freedman of M. Servilius ( cos. ord. AD 3) whose daughter he cured (Plin. HN 24,7,28). Under Nero and Vespasian he wrote prescriptions in iambic trimeters in the didactic tradition of  Apollodorus [7]; some of these are extant in  Galen. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography Edition: F. Cats Bussemaker, Poetae bucolici et didactici, 1862.

Simylus

(202 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Σίμυλος/ Símylos). [German version] [1] Poet of the New Comedy, 3rd cent. BC Poet of the New Comedy, victorious at the Lenaea in 284 BC with his play Ἐφεσία/Ephesía ('The Girl of Ephesus') [1. test. 1]. Pollux also lists the comedy Μεγαρική/Megarikḗ ('The Girl of Megara'), which according to an uncertain expansion of the list of Dionysia victors was supposed to have been performed in 185 as 'Old Comedy' [1. test. 2]. It is equally uncertain whether two and a half iambic trimeters cited by Theophilus of Antioch are attributable to the comic poet S. [1. fr. 2] (cf. S. [2]). Hidber, Thomas (Berne) B…

Ananius

(83 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] Ionian iambographer (?  c. 6th cent. BC). Athenaeus quotes four choliambic fragments: three in trimeters and one in nine tetrameters (9W, the longest), on the most appropriate foods for the respective season. Athenaeus ascribes 2W either to A. or Hipponax; Stobaeus ascribes 3W to Hipponax, and the scholiast of Arist. Ran. 659 ff. that ascribes to A. which Dionysus ascribes to Hipponax, in which there is an underlying confusion in ascribing it to about 406/5 BC. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography IEG 2,34-36.

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to …

Quirinus

(910 words)

Author(s): Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] Roman god Roman deity Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) [German version] A. Name The etymology of the name (Q. from * co-uir-inus as with Quirites from * co-uirites, 'the totality of the citizens') makes its bearer the protector of the Roman citizenry. The age and importance of Q. are documented by the mention of his flamen ( F lamines ) in fourth position of the priestly hierarchy ( R ex sacrorum ) transmitted in Fest. 299 f. L. Nevertheless, his nature remains opaque: His origin is connected with the founding of the city of Ro…

Hermocrates

(514 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἑρμοκράτης; Hermokrátēs). [German version] [1] Syracusan statesman, 424 BC Syracusan statesman and general. Became prominent for the first time at the peace conference of Gela in 424 BC and successfully invited the Sicilian Greeks with the slogan ‘Sicily to the Siceliots’ to settle the internal disputes (Thuc. 4,58-64). In 415 he recommended the formation of a coalition against Athens reaching beyond Sicily (Thuc. 6,32,3-34). Initially chosen as one of three authorized strategoi, but soon, like his colleagues, deposed because of his lack of success (Thuc. 6,73,1; …

Nicetes

(317 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Νικέτης; Nikét ēs). [German version] [1] Greek rhetor at Rome, Augustan period Greek rhetor active at Rome in the Augustan period, known solely through several references by Seneca the Elder. Most of these report brief judgements and pithy remarks on fictional disputes (Sen. Controv 1,4,12; 1,5,9; 1,7,18; 1,8,13; 9,2,29; 9,6,18; 10,5,23); others exemplify the peculiarity of his teaching method (ibid. 9,2,23: N. only declaimed himself, and did not listen to students' practice speeches) and indicate his evid…

Iambographers

(1,272 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] A. Archaic and Classical Poets Among archaic Greek poets,  Archilochus,  Semonides and  Hipponax were regarded as the earliest authors of iambics ( íamboi), followed by  Ananius and, later in the 5th century BC,  Hermippus [1]. The term iambopoioí is found not before the Byzantine lexica. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) [German version] B. Term and metrics ί̓αμβος ( íambos) seems, although its earliest use (Archil. 215 W) is not decisive, initially to identify a type of poem defined by content (cf. Pl. Leg. 935e) rather than by metre (cf. Hdt. 1…

Theognis

(1,349 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Θέογνις/ Théognis). [German version] [1] Elegiac poet, 6th cent. BC Elegiac poet, 6th cent. BC Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) [German version] I. Life and textual history T. was born in Megara [2] in Greece (Didymus in schol. Plat. leg. 630a), hardly Megara [3] in Sicily (Suda Θ 136 and probably Plat. l.c.,), ca. 544-1 BC (Suda l.c.; acc. to [17] 65-71 ca. 630-600). Plat. l.c. (citing El. 77-8) and Isoc. Or. 3,42-3 first name T. as a good adviser, and according to Stob. 4,29,53 Xen. wrote On Theognis and cited El. 22-3 and 183-190. T.'s poems were probably sung at 5th and 4th cent. B…

Tyrtaeus

(621 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)

Echembrotus

(74 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Eχέμβροτος; Echémbrotos) Arcadian aulode and elegist. Paus. 10,7,5-6 reports about his victory in the aulode competition during the newly arranged Pythian Games in 586 BC and quotes his verse(?) epigram on a tripod in Thebes dedicated to Hercules. His description as a singer of μέλεα καὶ ἐλέγους is the earliest record of the term

Chares

(964 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης; Chárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategos of the 4th cent. BC. In 367/6 he supported Phleius when it was hard-pressed by Argos and Sicyon. The aid he gave to the oligarchs on Corcyra led to that island's leaving the 2nd Athenian League, and brought Athens discredit among its confederates. Not re-elected as strategos until 357/6. The treaty between Athens and the Thracian kings  Berisades, Amadocus I and Cersobleptes under C. in 357 both confirmed the division of Thracian rule and established Athenian poss…

Apsines

(151 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἀψίνης; Apsínēs) Valerius [1] A., sophist from Gadara, pupil of the sophist Heracleides and of Basilicus, a teacher of Gaianus, rival of Fronto of Emesa in Athens during the reign of Maximinus, where he was granted the ornamenta consularia (Suda α 4735 Adler). Father of the sophist Onasimus (Suda α 4734, 4736), friend of Philostratus (Philostr. VS 2,33). The works ζητήματα and a Demosthenes commentary (Maximus Planudes 5,517 Walz) have been lost; a corrupt work περὶ τῶν ἐσχηματισμένων προβλημάτων follows a revision o…

Solon

(2,951 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Σόλων/ Sólōn). [1] S. of Athens Poet, legislator, c. 600 BC [German version] I. Life griech. Gesetzgeber, um 600 v. Chr. S. (b. c. 640 BC), an Athenian of the family of the Medontidae, supposedly related through the maternal line with Peisistratus [4], the most important Greek legislator (alongside the legendary Spartan Lycurgus [4]) of the Archaic period and the first prominent Athenian poet. S. first emerged around 600 BC, when he successfully appealed for the conquest of Salamis [1] during the conflict with Megara…

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…

Scopelianus

(132 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Σκοπελιανός; Skopelianós). Sophist from Clazomenae, active c. 80-115 AD. According to Philostr. VS 1,21,514, our only source, S. was taught by Nicetes [2], presumably in Smyrna where S. too taught (his pupils included Polemon) and declaimed. Renowned especially for subjects drawn from the Persian Wars, S. had a vigorous style (apparent also in his epic Γιγαντία ( Gigantía), criticised as 'dithyrambic'. Like his ancestors he was high priest of the province of Asia (ἀρχιερεύς/ archiereús). Often an envoy to emperors, c. 92 AD he successfully opposed Domitian's…
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