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Socialist Parties

(1,318 words)

Author(s): Brakelmann, Günter
[German Version] Lorenz v. Stein’s Der Socialismus und Communismus des heutigen Frankreichs (1842) provided the first systematic survey of the group of socialist and communist theoreticians (Socialism, Communism) in France in the first half of the 19th century. Stein understood their various philosophical, sociocritical, and future-oriented blueprints as responses to the social and political situation of the emerging proletariat under the conditions of a capitalistic economy (Capitalism). The attempts of w…

Bebel, August

(306 words)

Author(s): Brakelmann, Günter
[German Version] (Feb 22, 1840, Cologne – Aug 13, 1913, Passugg, Switzerland) was the most famous German and international social democrat of the imperial era (Social Democrats). From a simple background, he became a lathe operator, joined the civic educational association in Leipzig, participated, along with Wilhelm Liebknecht, in the establishment of the Sax…

Workers’ Movement, Protestant

(320 words)

Author(s): Brakelmann, Günter
[German Version] The original purpose of the Protestant workers’ movement was to provide an alternative to the socialist and Catholic workers’ movements. The initial constitution of the Protestant Workers’ Association (1882) documents its intellectual and political goals: cultivation of a Protestant consciousness, moral and general education, loyalty to the emperor and the Empire, peaceful relations between employers and employees, and support of members in sickness and death. A Gesamtverband Evangelischer Arbeitervereine ¶ Deutschlands was established in 1890. Its …

Kautsky, Karl

(281 words)

Author(s): Brakelmann, Günter
[German Version] (Oct 16, 1854, Prague – Oct 17, 1938, Amsterdam), studied history, national economy, and jurisprudence in Vienna, and joined the Social Democratic Labor Party of Austria in 1875 (Social democracy). In 1880, he collaborated with Karl Höchberg in Zürich and met Eduard Bernstein. From 1883 to 1917, he was editor-in-chief of the Neue Zeit, which soon became the main theoretical organ of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and of the international labor movement. Strongly influenced by F. Engels, Kautsky became the influential p…

Industrial Society

(525 words)

Author(s): Brakelmann, Günter
[German Version] Industrial mass production is one of the fundamental realities of modern history, a presupposition of which was a progressive accumulation and concentration of productive capital. A complicated money and banking system developed. The growth of an industrial labor force which was willing to sell its labor to the owners of the means of production at the prevailing market prices corresponded to this process. Within this dependent labor force, a social differentiation according to pro…

Engels, Friedrich

(283 words)

Author(s): Brakelmann, Günter
[German Version] (Nov 28, 1820, Barmen – Aug 5, 1895, London). The son of a pious manufacturer, inspired by “Das Junge Deutschland (Young Germany)” and leftist Hegelian philosophy (Hegelianism), turned away from Pietism quite early on, moving to pantheism and ultimately atheism. The educated businessman became, along with his friend, K. Marx, a theoretician and politician of a Communism that differed in character from early socialism (1848, Kommunistisches Manifest [ Communist Manifesto]). After the failure of the 1848 Revolution, in which b…


(1,975 words)

Author(s): Brakelmann, Günter | Schibilsky, Michael
[German Version] I. History of Economics – II. Industrial Work Environment – III. Industrial Congegration I. History of Economics In a long, continuous process, modern industrialism (Industrialization) developed from crafts, household industry and manufacturing. The so-called Industrial Revolution led to a differentiated factory system and the machine became the symbol of the new industrial era. Systems of factories and machines became entwined in a novel form of production and communication. Major technical in…

Trade Unions

(3,524 words)

Author(s): Brakelmann, Günter | Jähnichen, Traugott | Pierard, Richard V.
[German Version] I. History The emergence of trade unions is associated with the development of modern capitalistic industrial society. The nascent unions considered themselves primarily representatives of the economic and social interests of their organized members but also as representatives of the unorganized workers in the various trades and professions. By virtue of their organizational goals and structures, they were organized as opponents to the employers and thus formed an integral part of t…


(5,199 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Ebach, Jürgen | Brakelmann, Günter | Ruh, Hans | Müller, Severin
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Sociology and Social History – IV. Economics – V. Theology and Social Ethics – VI. Philosophy I. Religious Studies Labor (or work) is an activity peculiar to human beings; it consists of acting purposefully to affect nature, which represents the raw material for labor. Unlike animals, human beings must deliberately transform nature, for example to produce tools, in order to use it to satisfy their needs. The term labor has overtones of both necessity and utility, whereas activities that often demand extraordin…