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Anahita

(121 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Iranian deity of water and fertility; the name means ‘unpolluted’, ‘spotless’. She is described very specifically in Yt. 5,126-129; presumably the description is of a statue. The animal seen as sacred to her was the beaver. First mentioned in Iranian inscriptions at the time of Artaxerxes II. According to Clement of Alexandria (Protrept. 5,65,3), Berossus (III) reported that Artaxerxes had had statues of A. erected in Bactria, Ecbatana, Susa, Babylon, Damascus and Sardes. A popular deity from the Parthian era, with …

Chorezmia

(286 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Χορασμίη; Chorasmíē, Arabic Ḫwārizm). River-valley oasis on the lower Āmū-daryā. Settled by farmers since the 5th-4th millennia BC. In the Avesta ( Avesta script) as xwarizm; mentioned in the  Bisutun inscription. The Chorezmians together with the Aryans formed a satrapy (Hdt. III,93,173 Hecat. fr.). Abū Raiḥān al-Bı̄rūnī gives the year 980 before the era of Alexander (1292 BC) as the beginning of the Chorezmian era. When in 329/328 Alexander wintered in  Maracanda he was visited by  Pharasmanes, king o…

Capisa

(96 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Καπίσα; Kapiša-kaniš, Behistun inscription [1. D]), now Bagrām. City in the Ghorband Valley, 45 km north of Kabul, known since 1833. Capital city of Indo-Grecian kings (2nd-1st cents. BC), summer residence of the  Kushanians). Two rooms in the ‘palace’ contained inlaid works of art: Chinese lacquer work, Indian ivory and Hellenistic work. Plaster moulds for pouring metal reliefs are regarded as Alexandrian imports but prove the production of Hellenistic art works in Bactria. Brentjes, Burchard (Berl…

China

(298 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Σῖνα; Sîna). C. comprises within its modern borders several ancient cultural zones, with various traditions and ties looking to the west and the south. The steppe zone in the north was in continuous contact with western Siberia and eastern Europe from at least the 2nd millennium BC, always under the influence of the central Chinese cultures of the Yellow River region and the coastal zone. Southern China was orientated towards the south and south-east. Traffic along the ‘silk roads…

Pendzhikent

(143 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (ancient name and date of foundation unknown). Sogdian city of Pantcakat on the Serafsan, northern Tadjikistan; trading and artisan centre with gold extraction. A citadel, the inner city with two temples, suburbs and a necropolis are preserved. Wall paintings with local, Indian and Graeco-Roman motifs were found in temples and private houses, e.g. the fable by Aesop of the goose that laid the golden eggs. In addition, bracteates with the Roman she-wolf based on Byzantine coins wer…

Taochi

(74 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Τάοχοι, cf. Xen. An. 4,4,18 et passim; according to Sophaenetus FGrH 109 F 2 also Τάοι/ Táoi). Mountain people in northern Armenia, who maintained several fortified places with stores of foodstuffs in the valley of the Glaucus (tributary of the modern Çoruh Nehri). The T. were not directly dependent on the Great King, but occasionally served in the Persian army as mercenaries. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s. v. T., RE 4 A, 2247.

Atrek

(43 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] River in south Turkmenia flowing into the   Caspian Sea , in the late 2nd and early 1st millennium BC used to irrigate  Dahistan; since the Seleucid era the southern border of the nomadic territory ( Alexander's Wall). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Prasodes thalassa

(197 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (πρασώδης θάλασσα/ prasṓdēs thálassa, the 'green sea'). Described by Ptol. 7,2,1 and 7,3,6, Marcianus [1] (Periplus maris exteri 1,44 = GGM 1,44) and Anon. Geographia Compendiaria 32 (= GGM 2,32) as the part of the region of the Indian Ocean that is coloured by a leek-like "sea moss". The appearance of this seaweed points to a shallow zone probably close to a coastline, which could have been near the East African coast north of Zanzibar. From the Augustinian era on, Greco-Roman ships…

Dahistan

(53 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Landscape on the lower  Atrek, western Turkmenia, named after the  Dahae. In the late Bronze and early Iron Age between 1500 and 600 BC, a well-developed irrigation culture with more than 30 attested settlements. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography P. L. Kohl, Central Asia, Palaeolithic Beginnings to the Iron Age, 1984, 200-208.

Bishapur

(220 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids ‘The fair (city) of Shapur’, rectangular seat of residence of Shapur I (241-272,  Sapor), in south-west Iran. Constructed by Roman prisoners of war after Shapur's victories over Gordianus, Philippus Arabs and Valerians, consequently using Roman stonemasonry techniques (clamping hewn stones with iron ‘swallowtails’). I.a., a temple of  Anahita has been excavated, a square hall with an outer corridor on each side. The central, domed hall (22 × 22 m, c. 25 m high) of the quarry-stone palace was extended …

Apasiaci

(63 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] From Âpaçaka = ‘Water Sacae’ (?), in Str. 11,6-7,513 and Pol. 10,48. Possibly in the Šany-darja delta, their residence  Cirik-Rabat-Kala (?). Babiš-Mulla 1 is a fortified palace, the funeral monuments Babiš-Mulla 2 and Balandy 2 are domed buildings and represent a preliminary stage of the development of Islamic mausoleums. The region was abandoned in 150 BC. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Cirik-Rabat-Kala

(72 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Oval city site east of Lake Aral (800 × 600 m), with a citadel and six funerary buildings of the 4th-2nd cents. BC. Interpreted as the capital city of the  Apasiaci, abandoned in the late 2nd cent. BC. In the 3rd (?) cent. AD a rectangular fortification of the Khorezm state was built on the city site. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography S. P. Tolstov, Po drevnim del'tam Oksa i Jaksarta, 1962.

Merw

(112 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (also Alexandria [5], later Antioch [7]), principal town of Margiana; an oasis at the delta of the Murgab (or Margus); 30 km east of modern Mary in southern Turkmenistan. Inhabited since the Neolithic. First blossom in the 2nd millenium. The citadel of Erk-/Ark-Kala was built in the Achaemenid period; in Hellenistic times a town with rectangular grid pattern was attached to it. M. belonged to the Parthian and later to the Sassanid kingdom. It was conquered by the Arabs in 651 AD. Excavations have uncovered both Parthian and medieval remains. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bi…

Ghazni

(89 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Finds of coins from the period of the Indo-Greek kings  Artemidorus [1], Peucolas and  Archebius (around 130 BC) and the Saka king Azes I (around 70 BC) prove that G. was an important centre in the Graeco-Bactrian period. The Buddhist monastery of Tapa Sardar (2nd-4th cents. AD) discovered closeby and buildings of the Islamic Ghaznowid dynasty of the 11th-12th cents. attest to the continuous importance of the region. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography F. R. Allchin, N. Hammond, The Archaeology of Afghanistan from the earliest times to the Timuri…

Bâmyân

(124 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Resting-place for pilgrims and caravans between  Balkh and Peshawar ( Peucelaotis). Described by the Chinese pilgrim Hsüan Tsang in the 7th cent. AD; known in Europe since 1824; explored by a French expedition in 1922-30. Oldest remains of the city in the valley of B. date from the 5th cent. AD. Important Buddhist monastery, which was chiselled into a steep rock-face between the 5th and 7th cents. Large Buddhas (one 53 m, the second 35 m high), which were cut out of the rock, were…

Prason

(125 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Πράσον ἀκροτήριον/ Práson akrotḗrion). Southernmost cape on the African coast reached by the Greeks. It was considered to be the northwestern border of the legendary 'land of the south' (Ptol. 7,2,1) - the counterpart to Cattigara as the corner of Asia. According to the longitudinal data of several seafarers, it lay south of the equator, see Ptol. 1,8. It could have been Cape Ras Kansi near Dār as-Salām. P. was reached by the owners of trading vessels who were either driven south w…

Namazga-Tepe

(88 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] The largest tell (50 ha) in the foothills of the mountains of southern Turkmenia, to the southeast of Ašḫābād. Excavations since 1949. Basis for the structure of southern Turkmenian Chalcolithic and Bronze Age cultures (NMG strata I-V: 5th-2nd millennia BC) and the early Iron Age (NMG stratum VI: 1st millennium BC). The excavations so far encompass only part of the site, and the interpretations are somewhat disputed. Abandoned since the Achaemenid period. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography P.L. Kohl, Central Asia. Palaeolithic Beginnings to the Iro…

Acadra

(73 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Coastal area of Indo-China A coastal area of Indo-China mentioned by Ptol. 7,2,6. Excavations in Arikamedu indicate that this region enjoyed trade with Rome during the 1st cent. AD. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) [German version] [2] City of southern China City of southern China recorded only by Ptol. 7,3,5, possibly associated with the πόλις Ἀσπίθρα ( pólis Aspíthra) and the Psitharas river mentioned by Plin. HN 6,35. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Ariaspae

(73 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] A tribe of the Hilmend plain (Arr. Anab. 3,27,4) known from Alexander's campaign ( Alexander [4]). 3,27,4). Excavations uncovered Iron Age settlements with fire cult temples, as in Dahan-i Ghulaman, possibly the old Zarina drangiana. They were probably identical to the Εὐεργέται ( Euergétai) in Arr. 4,6,6 and Diod. Sic. 18,81. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography U. Scerrato, Evidence of religious life at Dahan-e Ghalaman, Sistan, in: South Asian Archaeology 1977, 1979, 709-733.

Air-tam

(60 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Graeco-Bactrian settlement on the north bank of the Amu-darja river. Remains include a Buddhist temple decorated with reliefs in the north Bactrian style of Gandhara art. Also found were the remains of two stupas and a Greek inscription of several lines from the time of Huvishka. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography B. Staviski, Mittelasien. Kunst der Kuschan, 1979, 134-138.
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