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Prasodes thalassa

(197 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (πρασώδης θάλασσα/ prasṓdēs thálassa, the 'green sea'). Described by Ptol. 7,2,1 and 7,3,6, Marcianus [1] (Periplus maris exteri 1,44 = GGM 1,44) and Anon. Geographia Compendiaria 32 (= GGM 2,32) as the part of the region of the Indian Ocean that is coloured by a leek-like "sea moss". The appearance of this seaweed points to a shallow zone probably close to a coastline, which could have been near the East African coast north of Zanzibar. From the Augustinian era on, Greco-Roman ships…

Taochi

(74 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Τάοχοι, cf. Xen. An. 4,4,18 et passim; according to Sophaenetus FGrH 109 F 2 also Τάοι/ Táoi). Mountain people in northern Armenia, who maintained several fortified places with stores of foodstuffs in the valley of the Glaucus (tributary of the modern Çoruh Nehri). The T. were not directly dependent on the Great King, but occasionally served in the Persian army as mercenaries. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s. v. T., RE 4 A, 2247.

Nomads

(386 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Νομάδες/ Nomádes). Nomads are wandering shepherds leading a special form of non-sedentary life, which is adapted, thanks to herd raising, to arid steppe regions of Eurasia and Africa. We may distinguish between: 1. nomads keeping sheep, horses, camels, and cattle (partly yaks) in north Eurasia; 2. those breeding sheep, goats, and camels, sometimes also keeping donkeys, in Arabia, Iran, India, and North Africa; 3. nomads breeding mainly cattle in East Africa. Greeks, Romans, and Byz…

Araxes

(156 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Ἀράξης; Aráxēs). [German version] [1] Largest river in Armenia Largest river in Armenia (today known as the Aras, Georgian Rakhsî), flows into the Caspian Sea; its full extent was not known until Roman times (Pompey) (Mela 3,40; Plin. HN 6,26; Ptol. 5,12,3 M. i.a.). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) [German version] [2] Another name for the Oxus According to Hdt. 1,202, another name for the Oxus (today Amu-darja), a western tributary of which (today: Wadi Usboi) reached as far as the Caspian Sea in Neolithic times. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) …

Cercetae

(97 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Danoff, Christo (Sofia)
[German version] (Κερκέται; Kerkétai). Tribe on the north-eastern coast of the  Pontus Euxinus on the slopes of the Caucasus. The name of what are today the Circassians was known to Greek geographers early on, but the details they provide about where the C. lived do not agree with each other (according to Str. 11,492; 496f. between the  Heniochi and the  Moschi). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Danoff, Christo (Sofia) Bibliography W. Kroll, s.v. Kerketai, RE 11, 291f. T. M. Minajeva, Archaeological Research in the Land of the Circassians (Russian), 1953, 34ff. Ch. Danoff, s.v. Pontos E…

Amardus

(78 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] A river in Media, mentioned in Ptol. 6,2,2, today Sefi Rud, in the territory of the Καδούσιοι ( Kadoúsioi) tribe, originally supposedly belonged to the territory of the Ἄμαρδοι ( Ámardoi; Str. 11,8,8). The Amardi migrated out of Ariana in the time of the Persian empire and settled by the Caspian Sea and in the mountainous area to the south. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography Atlas of the World, pl. 32, 1959 Großer Histor. Weltatlas I, 15 c.

Satala

(99 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Christianity | Xenophon | Zenobia | | Legio | Limes | Limes (τὰ or ἡ Σάταλα [ or hē Sátala]; Cass. Dio 68,19,2; Procop. Pers. 1,15,9 f.). Important communications node in Armenia Minor during the Imperial Period and hence a long-standing Roman garrison town. In the Christian period it was a see (remains at modern Sadağ). A fragment (face) of an Anahita-Artemis sculpture was found here. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography B. N. Arakeljan, Ocerki po istorii iskusstva drevnej Armenii (VI v. do n.E. - I…

Chorezmia

(286 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Χορασμίη; Chorasmíē, Arabic Ḫwārizm). River-valley oasis on the lower Āmū-daryā. Settled by farmers since the 5th-4th millennia BC. In the Avesta ( Avesta script) as xwarizm; mentioned in the  Bisutun inscription. The Chorezmians together with the Aryans formed a satrapy (Hdt. III,93,173 Hecat. fr.). Abū Raiḥān al-Bı̄rūnī gives the year 980 before the era of Alexander (1292 BC) as the beginning of the Chorezmian era. When in 329/328 Alexander wintered in  Maracanda he was visited by  Pharasmanes, king o…

Air-tam

(60 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Graeco-Bactrian settlement on the north bank of the Amu-darja river. Remains include a Buddhist temple decorated with reliefs in the north Bactrian style of Gandhara art. Also found were the remains of two stupas and a Greek inscription of several lines from the time of Huvishka. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography B. Staviski, Mittelasien. Kunst der Kuschan, 1979, 134-138.

Erythra thalatta

(597 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Ἐρυθρὰ θάλαττα; Erythrà thálatta). [German version] [1] Corresponding roughly to the north-western Indian Ocean A sea (Ionian Ἐρυθρὴ θάλασσα, ‘Red Sea’) frequently mentioned from Herodotus until late antiquity, corresponding roughly in its normal extent to the north-western Indian Ocean (today's Arabian Sea), while today's Red Sea and Persian Gulf were regarded as κόλποι ( kólpoi) of the Erythra thalatta (ET). Later on, however, this name undoubtedly covered an area much further eastwards; even the term Periplus maris erythraei to describe the coast stretching from with…

Paikuli

(83 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Village in Iraqi Kurdistan with an expanse of ruins around a stepped altar in the form of a tower (now also in ruins). Stone blocks with Parthian and Middle Persian inscriptions and busts with the representation of the Sassanid Šahānšāh Narseh (293-302; Narses [1]) are preserved. The remains were interpreted by E. Herzfeld as a victory monument to Narseh. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography E. Herzfeld, P. Monument and Inscription of the Early History of the Sasanian Empire, vol. 1, 1924.

Kinnamomophoros chora

(114 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Κινναμωμοφόρος χώρα; Kinnamōmophóros chṓra, ‘Land of Cinnamon’). This is what Str. 2,133 calls the region around Cape Guardafui in Somalia. Str. 16,774 cites the interior of this country as the area of origin of cinnamon; Ptol. 4,7,10 looked for it among the sources of the Nile. Eventually the whole of southern Ethiopia came to be regarded as the Land of Cinnamon. Hdt. 3,110,111; Plin. HN 10,97 and 12,82 et al. cited southern Arabia as the land of origin of the spice, though it was…

Hypanis

(142 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Ὕπανις; Hýpanis). [German version] [1] River in the Ukraine River in the Ukraine (modern Bug). According to Hdt. 4,47,52 it flows from west to east, next to  Ister (Danube) and  Tyras (Dniestr) the third of the Scythian rivers that flows to the Pontus. Further sources: Hdt. 4,17,18; Skymni periegesis V. 804 (= GGM 1,229); Str. 2,107; 7, 298; 306; Ptol. 3,5,2; Anonymi periplus Ponti Euxini 60 (= GGM 1,417); Steph. Byz. s.v.  Borysthenes; Mela 2,6; Plin. HN 4,83f. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) [German version] [2] River in the northern Caucasus Modern Kuban, which …

Bactrus

(132 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Βάκτρος; Báktros). [German version] [1] Inhabitant of the city of Bactra or of the land  Bactria Inhabitant of the city of Bactra or of the land  Bactria (usually ὁ Βάκτριος and Βακτριανός), see Dionys. Per. 736 (GGM II p. 150), Nonnus, Dion. 25,374, Str. 11,11,3 Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) [German version] [2] Southerly tributary of the Oxus Southerly tributary of the Oxus (Āmū-daryā), today Balḫāb (Curt. 7,4,31; Plin. HN 6,48; Str. 11,11,2 i.a.); identical with the  Araxes, according to Aristot. Mete. 1,13,16 and Ps.-Plut. De …

Ochus

(40 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὦχος/ Ô chos). Unidentified river in Hyrcania or Bactria (Str. 11,7,3; 11,11,5; Apollod. FGrH 779 F 4. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography J. Sturm, s.v. Ochos (2), RE 17, 1668-1770  H. Myśliwiec, s.v. Oaxus lacus, RE Suppl. 11, 1027.

Daedala

(277 words)

Author(s): Schuler, Christoph (Tübingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Δαίδαλα; Daídala). [German version] [1] Fortified settlement north-west of Telmessus This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia Fortified settlement north-west of Telmessus in the border region between Lycia and Caria, the eastern part of the Rhodian Peraea [2. 54-57, 97f.]. References: Str. 14,2,2; 3,1; Liv. 37,22,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. D.; Plin. HN 5,103. D. is identified with the ruins of Inlice Asarı [1. 32f.]; for location cf. Ptol. 5,3; Stadiasmos maris magni 256f.; inscriptions are lacking (orig…

Dargamanes

(115 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)
[German version] A river in  Bactria, which rises in the Paraponisus and supposedly joins the  Ochus to the west of the Zariaspes (Balhāb), and then flows together with the Ochus into the Oxus ( Araxes [2]). In fact there were two different rivers called Ochus, confused by Ptolemy: the Zariaspes (Balḫāb) and the Harērud. The former must be the one referred to here, which joins the Oxus, as the D. or Qunduz river (Arabic Nahr al-Ḍarġm̄) flows into the latter. Ptolemy (or his predecessor Marinus) ma…

Namazga-Tepe

(88 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] The largest tell (50 ha) in the foothills of the mountains of southern Turkmenia, to the southeast of Ašḫābād. Excavations since 1949. Basis for the structure of southern Turkmenian Chalcolithic and Bronze Age cultures (NMG strata I-V: 5th-2nd millennia BC) and the early Iron Age (NMG stratum VI: 1st millennium BC). The excavations so far encompass only part of the site, and the interpretations are somewhat disputed. Abandoned since the Achaemenid period. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography P.L. Kohl, Central Asia. Palaeolithic Beginnings to the Iro…

Sacastane

(149 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)
[German version] (Σακαστανή/ Sakastanḗ: Isidorus of Charax, Stathmoí Parthikoí 18 = GGM 1,253). The land on the middle course of the Etymander (Helmand), between Arachosia and Drangiana, occupied since the 2nd cent. BC by Sacae, also called Paraetacene by Isidorus of Charax. When the Indo-Parthian king Gondophares conquered the Indian land of the Saces, it appears that he also occupied Arachosia and Sacastane. Ardašīr (Ardashir [1] I), the first Sassanid king (224-241), conquered the land of Sacast…

Aornus

(146 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] City in Bactria A city in Bactria, named only by Arr. Anab. 3,29,1, apart from Bactra (today Balch) the greatest city of this land, and probably identical with the present-day Tashkurgan [1]. In the castle of A., Alexander left behind a garrison in 329 BC. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography 1 Atlas of the World II, Pakistan, Kashmir, Afghanistan, 1959, pl. 31. [German version] [2] Mountain fortress near the Indus Mountain fortress near the Indus, allegedly conquered by Hercules and then by Alexander 328 BC (Arr. Anab. 4,28,1; Ind. 5,10; A…
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