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al-Bukhārī, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn

(575 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Angelika
ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad al-Bukhārī al-Ḥanafī al-Zāhid (d. 12 Jumāda II 546/26 September 1151, in Bukhārā) was a Ḥanafī jurist (faqīh), theologian (mutakallim), and commentator of the Qurʾān (mufassir). He is one of those Islamic scholars who were well known and appreciated during their lifetimes and for a time afterwards but then fell into oblivion. The sources, which mostly repeat information from al-Samʿānī (d. 562/1166), describe ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn (also named al-Zāhid al-Aʿlā) as an excellent and versatile—reading mutafanninan instead of mufti…
Date: 2021-07-19

ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn al-Samarqandī

(1,626 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Angelika
ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn al-Samarqandī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abī Aḥmad (or Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd al-Samarqandī al-ʿĀlimī, or Ibn Muḥammad al-Samarqandī) (d. 539/1144?) was a Ḥanafī theologian and jurist in the tradition of Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī (d. c. 333/944). Despite his apparent renown in later centuries and the authority accorded him to this day as an interpreter of Islamic law, very little concrete information about his life and work is preserved. Even with regard to his complete name and the year of his death, the sources and bibliographies differ considerably. According to th…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Ṣaffār al-Bukhārī

(781 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Angelika
Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm b. Ismāʿīl b. Abī Naṣr (or b. Aḥmad b. Isḥāq b. Shayth b. al-Ḥakam) al-Ṣaffār al-Bukhārī al-Zāhid (d. 534/1139) was an important representative of the theological school of Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī (d. c. 333/944). The alternative name Ibrāhīm b. Isḥāq, recorded by Brockelmann in his GAL, is found only in the British Museum manuscript no. 1577, Add. 27526, and is presumably erroneous, since the few biobibliographical sources that mention al-Ṣaffār call him Ibn Ismāʿīl. Al-Ṣaffār, who was first quoted by another Māturīdī author, Abū l-Barakāt al-Nasafī (d.…
Date: 2021-07-19

Abū Isḥāq al-Isfarāyīnī

(736 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Angelika
Abū Isḥāq al-Isfarāyīnī (or Isfarāʾīnī), Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm b. Mihrān al-Mihrjānī al-Nīsābūrī al-Shāfiʿī (d. Muḥarram 418/February 1027), was, along with Abū Bakr b. Fūrak (d. 406/1015), the leading representative of the Ashʿarī school of theology in Nishapur in the late fourth/tenth and early fifth/eleventh centuries. Born in Isfarāyīn, al-Isfarāyīnī studied ḥadīth with Daʿlaj al-Sijzī (d. 351/962), Abū Bakr al-Shāfiʿī (d. 384/458), and Abū Bakr al-Ismāʿīlī (d. 371/981). In 351/962 at the latest he moved to Baghdad and completed his …
Date: 2021-07-19

Reflection and Deliberation

(905 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Angelika
Thinking about, and deciding a course of action based upon perceptions or observed events. To convey this concept, the Qurʾān most frequently employs the triliteral Arabic root f-k-r. Second and fifth forms of the root f-k-r are attested eighteen times in the Qurʾān. In contrast to certain conceptions in later mystic circles (see ṣūfism and the qurʾān ), the Qurʾān itself does not consider the notion of reflection (tafakkur) as inferior to remembrance (q.v.) of God (dhikr). But unlike dhikr, the Qurʾān never uses tafakkur with regard to God. Rather, the Qurʾān mentions the creation …

Remembrance

(3,076 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Angelika
Recollection; state of being held in mind. Verbal and substantive expressions (dhikr, dhikrā, tadhkira) derived from the radical dh-k-r appear in 274 verses of the Qurʾān (excluding passages rendering the meaning of “male”) and these have different ¶ connotations depending on context (see Ahrens, Christliches, 39 for discussion of the etymology). In addition to the basic meaning of “remembrance” this vocabulary can be employed in the sense of “thinking of, speaking about, mentioning, reporting on, relating” as well as “admonition, warning.” Remembrance of God The most important…