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Reflection and Deliberation

(905 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Angelika
Thinking about, and deciding a course of action based upon perceptions or observed events. To convey this concept, the Qurʾān most frequently employs the triliteral Arabic root f-k-r. Second and fifth forms of the root f-k-r are attested eighteen times in the Qurʾān. In contrast to certain conceptions in later mystic circles (see ṣūfism and the qurʾān ), the Qurʾān itself does not consider the notion of reflection (tafakkur) as inferior to remembrance (q.v.) of God (dhikr). But unlike dhikr, the Qurʾān never uses tafakkur with regard to God. Rather, the Qurʾān mentions the creation …


(3,076 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Angelika
Recollection; state of being held in mind. Verbal and substantive expressions (dhikr, dhikrā, tadhkira) derived from the radical dh-k-r appear in 274 verses of the Qurʾān (excluding passages rendering the meaning of “male”) and these have different ¶ connotations depending on context (see Ahrens, Christliches, 39 for discussion of the etymology). In addition to the basic meaning of “remembrance” this vocabulary can be employed in the sense of “thinking of, speaking about, mentioning, reporting on, relating” as well as “admonition, warning.” Remembrance of God The most important…