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Identity

(996 words)

Author(s): Browning, Don S.
The question of how the self and the world maintain their identity in the midst of apparent change and flux has been a perennial issue debated throughout the history of Western philosophy. Since the time of Parmenides (ca. 540-after 480 b.c.), the idea of being as an infinite and changeless substance undergirding and guaranteeing the permanence of both the world and the self has been a major answer to the problem of how a sense of identity is sustained in the midst of change and flux. The Parmenidian answer influenced the philosop…

Ego Psychology

(783 words)

Author(s): Browning, Don S.
Ego psychology is a movement within psychoanalytic psychology. It is associated with the names of Anna Freud (1895–1982), Heinz Hartmann, David Rapaport, Robert White, and Erik Erikson. The common feature of this school is its increased emphasis, in contrast to Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), upon the ego as the central organizing agency of the personality. This school saw the ego as somewhat more independent of the id than did Freud. In addition, it saw the ego as crucial for mental health, treating…

Marriage Counseling

(1,076 words)

Author(s): Browning, Don S. | Grethlein, Christian
[German Version] I. In the United States – II. In Germany I. In the United States Marriage counseling in the United States can be clarified by making three distinctions: (1) counseling for engaged couples (pre-marital counseling) and married couples (marriage counseling); (2) counseling informed by the social sciences and purely theological counseling; (3) counseling that is primarily educational or remedial or curative in intent. Most marriage counseling today combines theological with social scientific perspectives. Conservative and liberal churches diff…

Apologetics

(9,615 words)

Author(s): Usarski, Frank | Horst, Pieter W. van der | Dan, Joseph | Lüdemann, Gerd | Skarsaune, Oskar | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Islam – VI. Fundamental Theology – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Missiology I. Concept The necessity – felt with varying intensity by different communities of faith – to lend credibility to one's own convictions, ways of behaving, etc. in the face of other, perhaps dominant worldviews, using appropriate means, is an essential element of the history of religion. When the term apologetics is used in this context there is a certain conformity in content w…

Divorce

(4,531 words)

Author(s): Jackson, Bernard | Landmesser, Christof | Martin George | Gruber, Hans-Günter | Martin Petzolt | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament and Judaism – II. New Testament and Early Christianity – III. Church History – IV. Sociology – V. Systematic Theology and Social Ethics – VI. Law – VII. Practical Theology I. Old Testament and Judaism In the Hebrew Bible, the dissolution of a marriage is the husband's unilateral act. It was originally executed through a divorce formula, pronounced orally (Hos 2:4), but Deut 24:1, 3 knows of the practice of prepa…

Family

(5,614 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter | Gerstenberger, Erhard S. | Osiek, Carolyn | Klein, Birgit | Heun, Werner | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Medieval and Modern Judaism – V. The Law – VI. History and Sociology – VII. Social Ethics – VIII.  Socialization Theory – IX. Education – X. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies The term family describes a varied network of relationships between parents, children and other persons in a social system. In ethnically shaped small-scale societies, family groups are bearers of religious rituals (Rite and Ritual) and centers of religious community. Fa…

Familie

(4,544 words)

Author(s): Becker, D. | Gerstenberger, E.S. | Osiek, C. | Klein, B. | Heun, W. | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Mit dem Begriff F. wird ein vielgestaltiges Geflecht von Beziehungen zw. Eltern, Kindern und weiteren Personen eines sozialen Systems beschrieben. In ethnisch geprägten Kleingesellschaften sind F.gruppen Träger rel. Rituale (Ritus) und Zentren rel. Gemeinschaft. – F. ist nicht als ausschließlich biologisches Faktum aufzufassen. Bes. in matrilinearen Zuordnungen (Matriarchat) kann die Vaterrolle auf eine andere männliche Person übergehen. Vater-, Mutter…

Marriage

(10,960 words)

Author(s): Nehring, Andreas | Otto, Eckart | Deming, Willoughby Howard | Schäfer, Rolf | Nave-Herz, Rosemarie | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Sociology – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Law – VIII. Practical Theology – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. Religious Studies The term marriage denotes a relationship entered into between two or more persons of different sex, ritually formalized, intended to be permanent, and recognized by society. In all cultures, definitions of economic and sexual rights and the conveyance of social status to children (Child/Childhood) are part of the socially ¶ defined framework of marriage…