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(548 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
is the present name of the ancient ʿAkko, called Ptolemais by the Greeks, a port on the west coast of Palestine. ʿAkkā was captured by the Arabs under S̲h̲uraḥbīl b. Ḥasana. Muʿāwiya had the town rebuilt, as it had suffered a great deal in the wars with the Byzantines. He also caused dockyards to be built in ʿAkkā, which afterwards were removed to Tyre by Caliph His̲h̲ām. At a later period Ibn Ṭūlūn had the harbour surrounded by large stone embankments; Muḳaddasī, whose grandfather was the arch…


(319 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
(a.), religion, rite. However obvious it may be to connect this word with the Hebrew and Jewish-and Christian-Aramaic milla, mella, “utterance, word”, it has not been satisfactorily proved how and where it received the meaning which is taken for granted in the Ḳurʾān: religion or rite. Nor is it known whether it is a purely Arabic word or a loanword adopted by Muḥammad or others before him (Nöldeke, Z. D. M. G., lvii. 413 seems to hold that it is Arabic for he refers to the 4th form amalla or amlā “to dictate”). In the Ḳurʾān it always means (even in ¶ the somewhat obscure passage, Sūra xxxviii…

Abū Bekr

(1,825 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
ʿAbd Allāh, with the surname of ʿAtīḳ, variously interpreted by tradition, the first caliph. It is not related why he was given the surname of Abū Bekr (i. e. „father of the camel’s foal“), which his enemies mockingly twisted into Abū Faṣīl („father of the weaned young of a camel“). His father ʿOt̲h̲mān, also called Abū Ḳuḥāfa, and his mother Umm al-Ḵh̲air Salmā bint Ṣak̲h̲r both belonged to the Meccan family of Kaʿb b. Saʿd b. Taim b. Murra. According to the current account, Abū Bekr was three years …


(637 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
, an ancient tribe, frequently mentioned in the Ḳurʾān. Its history is related only in sporadic allusions. It was a mighty nation that lived immediately after the time of Noah, and became haughty on account of its great prosperity (vii, 69; xli, 15). The edifices of the ʿĀdites are spoken of in xxvi, 128 f.; cf. in lxxxix, 6-7 the expression: "ʿĀd, Iram of the pillars" [see iram d̲h̲āt al-ʿimād ]. According to xlvi, 21, the ʿĀdites inhabited al-Aḥḳāf [ q.v.], the sand dunes. The prophet sent to them, their "brother" Hūd [ q.v.], was treated by them just as Muḥammad was later treated by …


(524 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
, the Acco (ʿAkkō) of the Old Testament, the Ptolemais of the Greeks, the Acre of the French, town on the Palestinian seaboard. ʿAkkā was captured by the Arabs under the command of S̲h̲uraḥbīl b. Ḥasana. As the town had suffered in the wars with the Byzantines, Muʿāwiya rebuilt it, and constructed there naval yards which the Caliph His̲h̲ām later transferred to Tyre. Ibn Ṭūlūn constructed great stone embankments round the port; al-Maḳdisī, whose grandfather executed the work, gives an interestin…


(665 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F. | Headley, R.L.
an isolated mountain (known locally as a ḥaḍba ) located in Nad̲j̲d at about 24° 48′ N, 43° 54′ E, some 60 km. north-west of al-Dawādimī, 25 km. south and east of Nafī, and 15 km. west of Wādī al-Ris̲h̲āʾ. The mountain, which consists of reddish stone, rises abruptly from the surrounding gravel plains. About seven km. in length and three km. wide, D̲j̲abala runs from south-west to northeast with three main wādīs descending from its slopes…


(896 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
(a.) verbal noun of ṭāfa with bi of place, “encircling”; in the language of religious cults the running round or circumambulation of a sacred object, a stone, altar, etc. There are traces of the rite having existed among the Israelites, cf. especially Ps. xxvi. 6, and the ceremony of the feast of booths in the time of the Second Temple, where the altar is circumambulated once in the first six days and seven times on the seventh. The rite, however, was also found among Persians, Indians, Buddhists, Romans and others and is t…
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