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Porolissum

(181 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Daci, Dacia | Limes (Πορόλισσον/ Porólisson). Settlement in northwestern Dacia (CIL III 7986; CIL XVI 132; Tab. Peut. 8,3: Porolisso; Ptol. 3,8,6; Daci, Dacia), in the area of modern Moigrad-Jas (near Cluj in Romania). Already occupied by the Romans under Trajan (AD 98-117) and, owing to its strategic location, an important military base with two camps. P. played a significant role as a centre of trade and administration in the province of Dacia Porolissensis, which was established in AD 124. The civ…

Cius, [2]

(112 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman fortification and statio on the road along the Danube from Carsium to Beroe and Troesmis in Moesia Inferior, modern Gîrliciu/Constanţa in Rumania (It. Ant. 224: Cio; Not. Dign. Or. 39,6,14: Cii). A Roman garrison may already be assumed in the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD, in the 4th cent. C. was the base of a cuneus (division) equitum stablesianorum. In 369 Emperor Valens defeated the Gothic king Athanaric there (CIL III 7494). Last fortification work in the Valentinian period. Archaeological finds: ruins, inscriptions, hoard find of the 4…

Ulpianum

(127 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Οὐλπιανόν/ Ou lpianón, Οὐλπιάνα/ Ou lpiána). Roman fort and probably from the time of Hadrianus a municipium in Moesia superior (Moesi; Ptol. 3,9,6; Procop. Goth. 4,25,13; Procop. Aed. 4,1,29; Iord. Get. 285), modern Gračanica (in the district of Priština in Kosovo). There is evidence of a decurio and an ordo municipii; in the Severan period (beginning of the 3rd cent. AD) U. was called Res Publica Ulpiana (CIL III 1685 f.). U. was the centre of a mining district, an important road hub and prob…

Dorticum

(116 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Δορτικόν; Dortikón). Roman fort on the right bank of the Danube at the mouth of the Timacus (modern Timok), originally in Moesia Superior, in Dacia Ripensis after 271, today Vrav, Vidin in Bulgaria. In the 4th cent., location of the cuneus equitum Dalmatarum Divitensium. Still known as a fortress under Justinian. On its localization cf. also [1. 60, 77,248]. References: Geogr. Rav. 4,7,8; Tab. Peut.; It. Ant. 219,1; Not. Dign. Or. 42,3,14; Ptol. 3,9,4 (Δορτικόν); Procop. Aed. 4,6,20. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibli…

Sarmizegetusa

(236 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Limes | Pertinax | Rome | Balkans, languages Town in Dacia (cf. Ptol. 3,8,9: Ζαρμιζεγέθουσα/ Zarmizegéthousa; Cass. Dio 68,8,7: Ζερμιζεγέθουσα/ Zermizegéthousa; Dig. 50,15,1,9: Zarmizegetusa; Geogr. Rav 4,7: Sarmazege; Tab. Peut. 7,5: Sarmategte; in the inscriptions mainly S.), modern Hunedoara, Haţeg (Romania). In the pre-Roman Period, the centre was a settlement of the Daci and residence of the Dacian kings (S. Regia in Dacia Superior). Owing…

Savaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Limes | Pannonia | Rome | Rome Roman colony in Pannonia superior, modern Szombathely in western Hungary. Its location on the Amber Road (route Aquileia - Carnuntum) and good road connections to Arrabona and via Sopianae to Sirmium enabled a swift economic growth. Under Claudius [III 1] a colony was founded in S. ( Colonia Divi Claudii S.: Plin. HN 3,146), t ribus Claudia. Until AD 106 S. was the administrative centre of the province. As a centre of communications and admi…

Florentiana

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Φλωρεντίανα; Phlōrentíana: Procop. Aed. 4,4,1-3). Roman fortress on the Danuvius (Danube) near the mouth of the Timacus (modern Timok). Originally in Moesia Superior, from AD 271 in Dacia Ripensis, probably modern Florentin near Vidin in Bulgaria. The fortress, destroyed in late antiquity, was rebuilt at the time of Justinian for strategic reasons. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography V. I. Velkov, Die thrak. und dak. Stadt in der Spätant., 1959, 75 (Bulgarian with German summary) TIR L. 34, 1968, 59 (bibliography).

Ad Novas

(137 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Military post in Pannonia inferior Military post in  Pannonia inferior (It. Ant. 246,3; Not. Dign. occ. 32,9: Novas; 32,28: equites Dalmatae, Novas; 32,40: Auxilia Novensia, Arsaciana (Antiana?) sive Novas; cf. CIL III 10665). Remains of buildings, graves, ceramics and finds of coins north-east of Zmajevac near Osijek are presumed to represent the remains of Ad Novas. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Graf, Übersicht der antiken Geographie von Pannonien, 1932, 112 TIR L 34, 25. [German version] [2] Military post in Moesia Superior Military post in  Moesi…

Germisara

(86 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia (CIL III 1395; Γερμίζερα; Germízera Ptol. 3,8,4; cf. Germigera Geogr. Rav. 4,7; Germizera Tab. Peut. 8,1). Roman fortress and civilian settlement in Dacia superior, modern Geoagiu (Romania). G. lay in the Marisus valley and was administratively dependent on Sarmizegetusa. Tile of the Legio XIII Gemina (CIL III 8065; 14h). Thermae at the site (cult of nymphs) and a quarry in the vicinity. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34, 1968, 60 (Bibliogr.).

Latobici

(127 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Λατόβικοι; Latóbikoi, Ptol. 2,14,2; Latovici, Plin. HN 3,148; Latobici, inscription). A probably Celtic tribe in Pannonia superior near Noricum. In the Augustan period a city-like settlement ( municipium Latobicorum, tribus Quirina, CIL III, 3925) arose as a centre of the tribal area that was given the ius Latii ( Latin law) and was called Neviodunum from the time of Vespanian (AD 69-79). A duovir iure dicundo, a patronus municipii and a praeceptor Graecus (CIL III, 3925; 10804; 10805) are attested. There are votive inscriptions to Jupiter Optimus Ma…

Gerulata

(113 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (It. Ant. 247,3; Gerolate Not. Dign. Occ. 34,21). Roman military encampment established in Pannonia superior between Carnuntum and Ad Flexum before 116 BC, once located on a tributary of the Danuvius, modern Bratislava-Rusovce. In the 2nd and 3rd cents. the ala I Cannenefatium was stationed in G. (CIL III 4391; XVI 64; 76f.; 84; 96f.; 104; 178). The equites sagittarii were mentioned as garrison there during the 4th cent. (Not. Dign. Occ. 34,21). Rich archaeological finds from the 2nd-4th cents.: temple of Jupiter, remains of buildings, bu…

Lacringi

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] A Lugian (Vandalic) tribe (Λάκριγγοι/ Lákringoi, Cass. Dio 71,12,2; Lacringes, SHA Aur. 22,1), who fought against Rome in the Marcomannic Wars in AD 170. The L. were settled as foederati in the north of Dacia, where they defeated the Asdingi. Both tribes later counted as Roman allies (cf. Cass. Dio 71,11,6). In later years the L. intermingled with other members of the Vandalic tribes. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography L. Schmidt, H. Zeiss, Die Westgermanen, 1940, 163, 165, 167, 169.

Callatis

(276 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Patricius (Κάλλατις; Kállatis). Port town on the western coast of the  Pontus Euxinus, modern Mangalia in Romania, founded at the end of the 6th cent. BC by  Heraclea [7] Pontica. The economic boom of the town was originally brought about by the agricultural production from its surrounding area; C. was of less importance as a harbour town, compared with Odessus, Tomis and …

Dierna

(166 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Daci, Dacia (Δίερνα; Díerna). Originally a Dacian settlement, Romanized since Trajan, modern Orşova in Banat/Romania. Supposedly already a colonia iuris Italici in Trajan's time (Ulpianus in Dig. 50,15,1,8) and a municipium in the Severian period (CIL III 14468). D. was located on the Danube west of Drobeta and was the starting point of the rural road to Tibiscum and Sarmizegetusa. A ports, toll station and brick production were located nearby. The military garrison was supplied by the cohors I Brittonum miliaria,…

Durostorum

(297 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Legio | Limes | Moesi, Moesia Settlement on the right bank of the lower Danube in Moesia inferior, the modern Silistra (northern Bulgaria). Customs post and important junction between the country road from Marcianopolis and the road along the bank of the Danube leading into the delta zone. The military importance of D. is demonstrated by the presence there of the legio IX Claudia (from AD 105/6). It was probably under Antoninus Pius that a civilian settlement ( canabae) arose in D., elevated …

Potaissa

(175 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Wine | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Commerce | Legio | Limes (Ptol. 3,8,7: Πατρούισσα/ Patroúissa; Geogr. Rav. 4,14: Potabissa; CIL III 1627; CIL III 2086: Patavisensis). Settlement in Dacia Porolossensis to the southeast of Napoca, modern Turda (district of Cluj in Romania). The significance of P. consisted in its military garrison, which from the outbreak of the Marcomanni Wars in AD 168/9 was formed by the legio V Macedonica. The original vicus gained size and significance after the rise of the Canabae

Candidiana

(154 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Late-antique Roman fort on the road along the banks of the Danube in Moesia inferior, west of Durostorum, near the modern Malăk Preslavec in north-eastern Bulgaria (It. Ant. 223,2; Not. Dign. or. 40,24; Procop. Aed. 4,7,9). It had probably been built under Diocletian, in order to replace the Nigrinianis fortress (Tab. Peut. 8,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,7), an important link in the Danube limes, which had been destroyed by the Carpi (?) towards the middle of the 3rd cent.It was the garrison of the cohors I Lusitanorum Maximiana. Remains of buildings, archaeological finds, tre…

Capidava

(106 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Moesi, Moesia Roman fort on the road along the banks of the Danube from Axiopolis to Carsium, Moesia inferior, modern Topalu/Constanţa in Romania (Tab. Peut. 7,3; It. Ant. 244; Geogr. Rav. 179,3; Not. Dign. or. 39,4,13). Built under Trajan, destroyed by Goths in the mid-3rd cent. AD. Rebuilt in the 4th cent., and newly fortified at the end of the 6th cent. Late-antique posting of the beneficiarii consulares and of a cuneus (unit) equitum Solensium. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography Gr. Florescu, C. I, 1958, pass…

Matrica

(96 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Auxiliary fort on the right bank of the Danube on the road from Aquincum to Intercisa in Pannonia inferior; the modern Százhalombatta in Hungary. The camp was built in approximately the 2nd century (Itin. Anton. 245,5; Matrice, Not. dign. occ. 33,36). Under Commodus, burgi ( burgus ) were built in the vicinity, which were intended to prevent ‘the clandestine crossing of brigands’ (CIL III 3385). Remains of canabae and baths (partially restored) are extant. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 78-79 Zs. Visy, Der pannonische Limes in Ungarn, 1…

Varciani

(99 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Οὐαρικιανοί/ Ou arikianoí). A possibly Celtic people in Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,148; Ptol. 2,15,2), whose settlement area can probably be found in the southeast of Pannonia Superior to the east of the Sisciani (Siscia). V. were recruited into the Roman army probably as early as during the Great Pannonian Rebellion (AD 6-9) (cf. CIL XIII 7707; 7804; 8188; CIL V 875; CIL VI 3257) and deployed primarily in the Cohors Varcianorum Equitata. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography B. Saria, s. v. V., in: RE 8 A, 363-365 A. Graf, Übersicht der antiken Geographie von Pannonien…
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