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Osi

(132 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Illyrian (?) tribe (Tac. Germ. 28,3; 43,1; Osones: Itin. Anton. 263,7), related to the Aravisci, living to the east of the Marcomanni but west of the Hercynia Silva. The O. were tributary to the Sarmates or the Quadi. They originally lived northeast of the bend in the Danube near Vác, not far from the river Ipel' in central Slovakia. In 10/9 BC, they became part of the Roman sphere of influence (ILS 8965). Probably before the end of the Marcomanni War in 180 AD they migrated to Pannonia, in the area between Savaria and Aquincum (Itin. Anton. 263,7). From this period a praepos( itus…

Troesmis

(255 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia (Τροσμής/ Trosmḗs). Roman legionary camp and civilian city (Ov. Pont. 4,9,79; Tab. Peut. 8,3; Not. Dign. Or. 39,23; 39,31; Geogr. Rav. 4,5,19;  Procop. Aed. 4,11) in Moesia Inferior (Scythia Minor; Moesi), modern Igliţa (in the municipality of Turcoaia in the Romanian county of Tulcea). The Getae were the original settlers; the Romans advanced into the region in 29/27 BC and fortified their position c. AD 15. Before AD 112 the legio V Macedonica was deployed by Oescus [2] to take over military protecti…

Neviodunum

(173 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Small Roman town in Pannonia Superior (Νοοϊόδουνον/ Nooïódounon, Ptol. 2,14,4; Itin. Anton. 259; ILS 4189: Neviod(unensium servus), also CIL III 3919; 46,16), modern Drnovo in Slovenia (district of Brez̆ice), originally a Celtic settlement in the neighbourhood of the Latobici. In the Roman period N. gained significance as a node on the road from Emona to Siscia. A branch leading northwest connected N. with Celeia. Near N. there was a crossing over the Sava. In the Flavian period N. became a municipiu…

Poetovio

(591 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Legio | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Pilgrimage Roman settlement in Pannonia superior, from the time of Diocletianus in Noricum Mediterraneum, modern Ptuj in Slovenia. The obviously Illyrian place name is documented in various alternative forms (CIL V 4371; VI 2552; 32561: Petovio; CIL XVI 155: Petabio; CIL VI 2579; 32515: Petavio; CIL XI 1016: Poetavio; Amm. Marc. 14,11,19: Potabio; Codex Theod. 12,1,78: Patavio; Ptol. 2,14,4; Zos. 2,46: Ποτόβιον/ Potóbion; Priscus fr. 8: Παταβίων/ Patabíōn). The…

Nauportus

(269 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Vicus in Pannonia Superior Vicus in Pannonia Superior (Tab. Peut. 5,1; Ναύπορτος/ Naúportos, Str. 4,6,10), modern Vrhnika (Ljubljana district, Slovenia). The Roman vicus was established at the site of a Celtic settlement (Str. 7,5,2). Because of its location on the eponymous river and the Aquileia - Emona road, the settlement quickly prospered (Tac. Ann. 1,20,1: municipii instar, ‘ as a municipium’). The area between N. and Emona was very important to commercial traffic from northern Italy to the middle Danube, where beyond Carnuntum …

Ratiaria

(123 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Moesi, Moesia | Rome Roman colony in Moesia superior, later the capital of Dacia Ripensis (Daci, with map), modern Arčar (oblast Vidin, Bulgaria). The settlement lay on the right bank of the Danube on the important road from Singidunum to Oescus and further eastwards. R. was the camp of the  Legio XIII Gemina and the port of a river fleet (Not. Dign. Or. 42,43). There is evidence of an arms factory there (Not. Dign. Or. 11,38). Archaeological finds, inscriptions and coins. Burian, Jan (P…

Dimum

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia Statio on the Danube in Moesia inferior, modern Belene, apparently in the tribal territory of the Getic Dimenses. The identification with Δίακον (Ptol. 3,10,10) is questionable. In the 4th cent. a cuneus equitum Solensium was stationed there (Not. Dign. Or. 40,12). Attestations: Itin. Ant. 221; Tab. Peut.; CIL III 12399; Not. Dign. Or. 40,6; 12; Procop. Aed. 307,19 (Διμώ). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography V. I. Velkov, Die thrak. und dak. Stadt in der Spätant., 1959, 60, 67, 88, 163.

Adamclisi

(187 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] ‘Church of Men’ (Turkish), the ancient Tropaeum Traiani in  Moesia inferior or Scythia minor (CIL III 7481-84; 12461-75; 13733-36; 14214-1421418; 16,58), founded by  Trajanus and settled by Traianenses Tropaeenses (CIL III 12470). It became a   municipium probably under Emperor  Marcus, was destroyed at the end of the 3rd cent. AD, later rebuilt by  Constantinus I and  Licinius (remains of buildings from the 4th cent., partly Christian). In the 6th cent. AD destroyed by the  Avares. About 1.5 km t…

Argidava

(87 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Military camp and civilian town (archaeological remains ) in  Dacia superior, statio on the road from Lederata to Tibiscum (Ptol. 3,8,9; Arcidaba: Geogr. Rav. 4,14), modern Varadia near Oravita ( Banat, Romania). Garrison of the cohors I Vindelicorum milliaria civium Romanorum, probably relocated from  Moesia superior to A. during the Dacian Wars in about AD 100. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography W. Wagner, Die Dislokation der röm. Auxiliarformationen, 1938, 198 G. Alföldy, Die Hilfstruppen in der röm. Prov. Germania Inferior, 1969, 75 TIR L 34, 1968, 30.

Crumerum

(129 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Military camp and vicus on the Danube embankment road east of Brigetio in Pannonia superior, now Nyergesújfalu (Komárom, Hungary). The site was established at the end of the 2nd cent, and in the 2nd/3rd cents. was the base for the cohors V Callaecorum Lucensium (CIL III 3662-3664), in the 4th cent. for the equites promoti (Not. Dign. Occ. 33,30). Rebuilt in the period of Constantine and fortified with corner turrets (It. Ant. 246,2; 266,8; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,9,30; CIL III 3662-3666, 10602; Κοῦρτα in Ptol. 2,11,5; 15,4). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography C. Patsch, s.v. …

Sopianis

(211 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Rome ( Sopianae). Roman settlement in Pannonia inferior (It. Ant. 231; 264; Amm. Marc. 28,1,5; ILS 3795), modern Pécs in Hungary, situated at the starting point of significant roads into the Pannonian Limes zone: north of Carnuntum, Arrabona, Brigetio and Aquincum, southeast of Mursa, Sirmium and Singidunum. There were strong commercial relationships with Italy (imported metal goods, ceramics). Its economic upturn attracted…

Hieron Stoma

(153 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Ἱερὸν Στόμα; Hieròn Stóma). The most southerly branch of the Danube estuary (Str. 7,5,1; 8,6,1; Ptol. 3,10,2), also known by the name of  Peuce (Luc. 3,202; Plin. HN 4,79; Ptol. loc. cit.; Mart. 7,7,1; Amm. Marc. 22,8,46; Geogr. Rav. 4,5,13), in Scythia Minor, modern district of Tulcea in Romania. Of the seven branches of the estuary in the Danube delta the Hieron Stoma (HS) carried the largest amount of water into the sea. The HS was dedicated to St. George by the Christians and pu…

Mursa

(230 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Roman colony from the time of Hadrian (CIL III 3279; 3560) and a military base in Pannonia Inferior (It. Anton. 131; Tab. Peut. 6,2), modern Osijek (in Croatia). M. probably lay on both sides of the lower Dravus (Drava), where there was a river crossing. Of the officials of the colony decuriones (CIL III 3288; 10305; 15141), VI viri (CIL III 15145), an augur (CIL III 3291 = 10267) and a flamen (CIL III 3288) are recorded. M. was known for its ceramics and as a trading ce…

Savaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Limes | Pannonia | Rome | Rome Roman colony in Pannonia superior, modern Szombathely in western Hungary. Its location on the Amber Road (route Aquileia - Carnuntum) and good road connections to Arrabona and via Sopianae to Sirmium enabled a swift economic growth. Under Claudius [III 1] a colony was founded in S. ( Colonia Divi Claudii S.: Plin. HN 3,146), t ribus Claudia. Until AD 106 S. was the administrative centre of the province. As a centre of communications and admi…

Capidava

(106 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Moesi, Moesia Roman fort on the road along the banks of the Danube from Axiopolis to Carsium, Moesia inferior, modern Topalu/Constanţa in Romania (Tab. Peut. 7,3; It. Ant. 244; Geogr. Rav. 179,3; Not. Dign. or. 39,4,13). Built under Trajan, destroyed by Goths in the mid-3rd cent. AD. Rebuilt in the 4th cent., and newly fortified at the end of the 6th cent. Late-antique posting of the beneficiarii consulares and of a cuneus (unit) equitum Solensium. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography Gr. Florescu, C. I, 1958, pass…

Matrica

(96 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Auxiliary fort on the right bank of the Danube on the road from Aquincum to Intercisa in Pannonia inferior; the modern Százhalombatta in Hungary. The camp was built in approximately the 2nd century (Itin. Anton. 245,5; Matrice, Not. dign. occ. 33,36). Under Commodus, burgi ( burgus ) were built in the vicinity, which were intended to prevent ‘the clandestine crossing of brigands’ (CIL III 3385). Remains of canabae and baths (partially restored) are extant. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 78-79 Zs. Visy, Der pannonische Limes in Ungarn, 1…

Varciani

(99 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Οὐαρικιανοί/ Ou arikianoí). A possibly Celtic people in Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,148; Ptol. 2,15,2), whose settlement area can probably be found in the southeast of Pannonia Superior to the east of the Sisciani (Siscia). V. were recruited into the Roman army probably as early as during the Great Pannonian Rebellion (AD 6-9) (cf. CIL XIII 7707; 7804; 8188; CIL V 875; CIL VI 3257) and deployed primarily in the Cohors Varcianorum Equitata. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography B. Saria, s. v. V., in: RE 8 A, 363-365 A. Graf, Übersicht der antiken Geographie von Pannonien…

Costoboci

(120 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κοστοβῶκοι; Kostobôkoi, Paus. 10,34,5; Κοστουβῶκοι; Kostoubôkoi, Cass. Dio 71,12,1; Costoboci, SHA Aur. 22,1; Costobocae, Amm. Marc. 22,8,42; Castaboci/ Castabocae, ILS 1327). A people of Dacian (Thracian?) origin that lived on the eastern margin of the Carpathians. In AD 170, the C. took part in the Marcomanni Wars against Rome. A raid took them through Dacia (cf. CIL III 14214 = ILS 8501) into Greece where they were defeated in  Phocis (Paus. 10,34,5; cf. ILS 1327). The Asdingi inflicted a crushing defeat on them in 171/2 (Cass. Dio 71,12,1). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bib…

Discoduratera

(100 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Δισκοδουρατέραι; Diskodouratérai). A considerable emporium between the modern villages of Gostilitsa and Slaveikovo on the left bank of the Yantra (ancient Iatrus), 12 km west of Drianovo, 32 km south-west of Nicopolis ad Istrum, founded by Augusta Traiana probably during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Enjoyed considerable prosperity under the Severan emperors, when it was fortified; under Aurelian incorporated into the territory of Nicopolis ad Istrum. Numerous inscriptions ([1. 21ff.], IGBulg II, 137-145) and important ruins. Burian, Jan (Prague) Biblio…

Carpi

(130 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κάρποι; Kárpoi). Important Dacian tribe; its original settlement area was located between Olbia and the mouth of the Danube. In the 3rd cent. AD, the C. settled in the lower Danube region. From then on, they were frequently in bloody disputes with Rome, initially in Dacia, later also in Moesia and Thrace; these opened the way into the Roman empire for other tribes, especially the Goths. From the time of the emperor Aurelian, the Romans settled individual groups of the C. in Roman …
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