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Peace Movements

(1,580 words)

Author(s): Burkholder, J. R.
1. Identification and Classification Across the centuries of Christian history, the most consistent and enduring peace witness has been that of the so-called historic peace churches: the Anabaptists (existing today as Mennonites, Hutterites, and Amish), the Quakers, and the Brethren. Here, however, attention is focused on other organized efforts to bring together persons opposed to war and violence, usually including the religiously motivated. American peace historian Charles Chatfield has identified two general orientations among peace groups: (1) internat…

Pacifism

(3,597 words)

Author(s): Burkholder, J. R. | Holl, Karl
1. Term and Usage The word “pacifism” came into use around 1900, apparently first in Europe, to describe a generalized attitude of opposition to war. A more restricted sense found in early Christianity designates the absolute refusal to use force against persons (often called nonresistance, from Jesus’ admonition in Matt. 5:39). In contemporary usage, pacifism encompasses a wide range of antiwar and antiviolence views, often including the development of nonviolent strategies for social change. Earlier European use of the term embraced the uncond…