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(287 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, the usual modern Muslim spelling of the Indian river which rises in Tehrī in the Himālaya and falls into the Ganges at Allāhābād. Generally called Jamnā (older Jumna) on western maps, its Sanskrit name Yamunā has been largely re-adopted in modern India; it was known to Ptolemy as Διαμούνα, to Arrian as ’Ιωβαρής, and to Pliny as Iomanes the spellings Gemini (Roe) and Gemna (Bernier) occur among early European travellers. Early Muslim historians of India refer to it as . Its depth and width have made it a natural frontier in the division of territory in north India, between …


(435 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, commonly called Gurū Nānak , Hindū religious reformer, born in the village of Talwandī some 50 km/30 miles south-west of Lāhawr, in 874/1469, some half a century after Kabīr [ q.v.] and died in 945/1538; there is much in common between the two teachers, both in the rejection of formal Hinduism and in the acceptance of ideas derived from Islam, especially an uncompromising monotheism. The Talwandī district was well forested, and the young Nānak is said to have resorted often to the religious recluses who had setded there, Hi…


(283 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a fortified town of the Deccan [see dakhan ], 17 53′ N., 76 57′ E., about 37 miles west of Bīdar [ q.v.]. In the 4th/10th and 5th/11th centuries, it was the capital of the Late Western Čālukya rād̲j̲ās, passing later to the Yādavas of Devagiri (= Dawlatābād, [ q.v.]); after the foundation of the Bahmanī [ q.v.] dynasty at Devagiri, Kalyāni was annexed as one of the strongholds on their northern borders; but there had presumably been a previous ¶ Muslim conquest of the town since an inscription is preserved of a d̲j̲āmiʿ masd̲j̲id founded by Ulug̲h̲ K̲h̲ān (later su…


(305 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a hill-fort in the Barār region of ¶ India [see berār ], in lat. 21°15′N. and long. 77°4′E., in the former Ḥaydarābād native state (now in Maharās̲h̲tra State), at the southernmost end of the Satpura hills. The fortress is presumably pre-Muslim, since Firis̲h̲ta ( Guls̲h̲an-i Ibrāhīmī ), states that it was restored and repaired by Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Bahmanī between 828-31/1425-8, and the earliest buildings there appear to be of the Bahmanī period, although later the fort passed into ʿImād S̲h̲āhī [ q.v.] hands. It played an important role in the warfare of the rulers in the Decca…


(155 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
The Elurā (Ellora) caves, near Dawlatābād [ q.v.], appear in the history of Muslim India only as the scene of the capture of the Gud̲j̲arāt princess Deval Devī, the future bride of Ḵh̲iḍr Ḵh̲ān [ q.v.], for ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī by Alp Ḵh̲ān. who had given his forces leave to visit the cave temples (Firis̲h̲ta, Lucknow lith., i, 117). These caves were justly famous and were described by some early travellers, e.g., Masʿūdī, iv, 95, copied with much distortion of names by Ḳazwīnī, cf. Gildemeister, Scriptorum Arabutn de rebus Indicis , text 79, trans. 221; Musl…


(839 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, in the histories also Gāwīl , Gāwīlgaŕh , a fortress “of almost matchless strength” (Abu ’l-Faḍl, Āʾīn -i Akbarī , Eng. tr. Jarrett, ii, 237) in Berār, Central India, lat. 21° 20′ N., long. 77° 18′ E., seven kos (about 25 km.) north-west of Eličpur (Iličpur [ q.v.]). According to Firis̲h̲ta the fortress was built by Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Walī [see bahmanīs ] in 829/1425-6; but from its name it appears to have been a former stronghold of the Gāwalī chiefs, and it is more likely that Aḥmad S̲h̲āh merely strengthened the fortifications during t…


(645 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a town in the Indian state of Rajasthan, some 75 miles south of D̲j̲odhpur on the left bank of the Sukrī river. Although the troops of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī had passed through D̲j̲ālor on their return from the conquest of Gud̲j̲arāt in 696/1297, it was not then occupied by them. In Ḏj̲umādā I 705/December ¶ 1305, however, that king sent ʿAyn al-Mulk, governor of Multān, on an expedition to D̲j̲ālor, Ud̲j̲d̲j̲ayn and Čandērī; he was opposed by an army of 150,000 Hindūs on his entry into Mālwā, and his victory over them, which brought Ud̲j̲d̲j̲ayn, D̲h̲ār, Mānd́ū, and Čandērī [ qq.v.] into M…


(2,688 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, term used in India for those African communities whose ancestors originally came to the country as slaves, in most cases from the Horn of Africa, although some doubtless sprang from the slave troops of the neighbouring Muslim countries. The majority, at least in the earlier periods, may well have been Abyssinian, but certainly the name was applied indiscriminately to all Africans, and in the days of the Portuguese slave-trade with India many such ‘Ḥabs̲h̲īs’ were in fact of the Nilotic and Bantu races. There is little detailed information concerning the numbers, the status an…


(447 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a ruined city of Gud̲j̲arat in Western India, Lat. 22° 29′ N., long. 73° 32′ E., about 78 miles south-east of Aḥmadābād, taken by the Gūd̲j̲arāt sulṭān Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh I ‘Begadā’ on his conquest (889/1484) of the adjoining stronghold ¶ of Pāwāgaŕh, which had successfully resisted Aḥmad S̲h̲āh I in 821/1418. The Begadā occupied Čampānēr forthwith, building a city wall with bastions and gates (called Ḏj̲ahānpanāh; inscription EIM 1929-30, 4-5), and a citadel ( bhādar ). He renamed the city Maḥmūdābād, and it was his favourite residence until his deat…


(116 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, also less correctly darsan, a Sanskrit word ( darśana , from the root dṛś “see”) meaning “showing, being visible”; hence, the ceremonial appearance of a king to his subjects. This Hindū practice was adopted by the Mug̲h̲al emperor Akbar ( Āʾīn-i Akbarī , i, 73) and his immediate successors. The English traveller Coryat records that Ḏj̲ahāngīr in Āgra used to present himself three times a day from a canopied window. The failure of S̲h̲āhd̲j̲ahān to appear during his illness at the end of 1067/September 1657 led to rumours of his death. The practice of dars̲h̲an was …


(563 words)

Author(s): Burton Page, J.
, a town, taḥṣīl and district in the northern plains of the Pākistān Pand̲j̲āb lying between the rivers Ḏj̲ehlam and Čanāb. The district is thought to have once formed part of the ancient Gurd̲j̲ara kingdom; but it is not specifically referred to in Islamic historical writing until the time of Bahlōl Lodī (855-94/1451-89) when the town of Bahlōlpur, 36 km. north-east of Gud̲j̲rāt town, was founded; the settlement of the district was continued by S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh in the middle of the 10th/16th century, and completed by Akbar with the refounding of Gud̲j̲rāt town. There seem to have been at …


(384 words)

Author(s): Burton Page, J.
, a town and district in the north of Mysore state in India on the western borders of what is known as “the Deccan” (Dakkhan [ q.v.]); the town is situated at 17° 21′ N., 76° 51′ E. Of some antiquity in the Hindū period, it formed part of the domains of the Kākatīyas of Warangaḷ before the Islamic conquest. It was annexed for the Dihlī sultanate by Ulug̲h̲ Ḵh̲ān, the future Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ, early in the 8th/14th century, to pass first to the Bahmanī dynasty on its establi…


(3,031 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, the national language of the Republic of India, is now generally regarded as that form of the central north Indian speech which draws its erudite vocabulary from Sanskrit and its culture from Hinduism, and for literary purposes as including not only the standard dialect (Khaŕī bolī) but also the eastern Awadhī, the central Brad̲j̲, and the bardic poetry of Rād̲j̲āsthān [see also hind , Languages]. Formerly, and as late as the 19th century, it was also used to describe the speech of north Indian Muslims, those of Hind as opposed to Dakhan , the speech of the Hindūs being distinguished as Hindaw…


(533 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, an ancient town of India, in lat. 28°3′N. and long. 76°10′E., in the modern Haryana State, some 80 miles south-west of Dihlī. It was probably (Ishwari Prasad, Life and times of Humayun , 95) the birthplace of S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh, his family having been associated with the place for some time. But Nārnawl has much older Islamic associations, with the inscription at the dargāh of S̲h̲āh Wilāyat showing that the saint was living here in and before 531/1137, i.e. over fifty years before the Muslim conquest of Dihli; his dargāh shows signs of the pre-Muslim style of cofferedroof construction…


(1,514 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a region of west-central India lying to the north-west of the Deccan [see dakhan ], the upper valley of the river Tāptī (also called Tāpī), and the surrounding plain and forest country bounded on the north by the Satpuŕā hills and the river Narbadā, on the west separated from mainland Gud̲j̲arāt ¶ [ q.v.] by the northern ranges of the Western G̲h̲āt́s, on the south by the Sātmalā hills which separate it from the Deccan tableland, and on the south-west by the Laling and Gālnā hills which divide it from the Nāsik district of Mahārās̲h̲t́ra. There i…


(452 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, an ancient townoflndiain west K̲h̲āndēs̲h̲ [ q.v.; Map], situated in lat. 21°22′N., long. 74°4′E., in the valley of the River Tapti and formerly an important trade centre. As Nandigara it is said to have been founded by Nanda Gawlī, a local tribal chief, and it is asserted that it remained in his family “until conquered by the Muhammadans under Muin-ud-din Chishti” ( IGI 2, xviii, s.v. 362-3, Nandurbar ) ; this sounds improbable, and perhaps refers to an early Ṣūfī settlement. Its possession seems to have changed at various times between Gud̲j̲arāt and K̲h̲āndēs…


(213 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a mixed Indian tribe of largely north-eastern Rad̲j̲put stock, a branch of whom were converted to Islam in the mid-8th/14th century. Their conversion seems to have been nominal, as they are described as offering animal sacrifices to a mother-goddess, worshipping at shrines of the Hindū god of the homestead Bhūmiyā, and following the Pačpiriyā (Pānč Pīr [ q.v.]), especially Sālār Masʿūd, whose banner was an object of their devotion at the s̲h̲ab-i barāt (eve of 14 S̲h̲aʿbān), as well as the Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Ṣāḥib of Ad̲j̲mēr (Muʿīn al-Dīn Čis̲h̲tī [ q.v.]); they celebrated Hindū festivals…

Mān Singh

(752 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, Mahārad̲j̲ā ot Amber, outstanding general of the Mug̲h̲al armies under Akbar, later governor of Mug̲h̲al provinces. He was born in 1607 V.S. = 975/1550, the son of Bhagwant Dās, eldest son and heir apparent of the reigning Mahārād̲j̲ā Bhārah Mali, a Rād̲j̲pūt [ q.v.] of the Kaččhwāha clan; the Muslim sources (Niẓām al-Dīn, Badāʾūnī, Firis̲h̲ta, Abu ’l-Faḍl, and D̲j̲ahāngīr in his Tūzuk ) garble the names and confuse Man Singh’s parentage, but there seems no reason to doubt the contemporary Rād̲j̲pūt records. After a young martial tra…


(437 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, properly the Kanarese (Kannadá) speaking district of southern India, Sanskrit karnāṭaka the word seems to be derived from Dravidian roots meaning “black country”, i.e., the country with the “black cotton soil” which characterizes the south Deccan plateau. The region is approximately that of the modern Mysore (Mahisur) state; but it was already applied in mediaeval times to part of the Telugu-speaking region as well, as in the time of the Vid̲j̲ayanagara [ q.v.] kingdom. After the Deccan confederacy had defeated the Vid̲j̲ayanagara forces at the battle of Tālīkot́a …


(739 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, Urdū and Hindī word for step-well, of which there are two main types m India, the northern and the western. The northern variety is the simpler, consisting essentially of one broad flight of stone steps running from ground level to below the waterline, the whole width of the site; subsidiary flights may run opposite and at right angles to these below water-level, thus constricting the cistern itself into successively smaller squares, and these may be supplemented by cross-flights reducing the …
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