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(982 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, plu. ḍiyāʿ , estate. The word can mean generally a rural property of a certain size, but is understood in a more precise sense in fiscal contexts. It is known that at the time of the Conquests the local people were left in possession of their lands, subject to their paying the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ ; it was later understood that the conversion of the landowner would not change the fiscal status of the land. In contradistinction to the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ lands there were the original properties of the Arabs, especially in Arabia, and the grants made in favour of notables or their depende…

Köse Dag̲h̲

(382 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a land-corridor some 50 miles/80 km. to the north-west of Sīwās where there took place in 641/1243, probably on 6 S̲h̲awwāl/26 June, the decisive battle which opened up Asia Minor to the Mongols and sounded the knell for the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultanate of Rūm. The first contacts of the Mongols and Sald̲j̲ūḳs went back to the last years of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kayḳubād I [ q.v.], but at that time Anatolia was too well-protected in relation to the conquests already effected by the Mongols for the latter really to have any plans for conquering it. It was only under Kayk̲h̲usraw II [ q.v.] that the threat took d…


(879 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, an important seigneurial family which, though it never completely freed itself from the overlordship of its powerful neighbours, possessed for a century extensive lands in Upper Mesopotamia, partly in the east around Irbil and partly in the west, for a shorter period, around Ḥarrān. The founder of the family, Zayn al-Dīn ʿAlī Küčük b. Begtegin, was a Turcoman officer whose fortune was linked from the beginning with that of Zenki. Probably as a result of his participation in this prince’s campa…


(349 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Mangūd̲j̲ak ), a Turkmen chief who was the eponym of a minor dynasty which appears in history with his son Isḥāḳ in 512/1118 in eastern Anatolia around the town of Erzind̲j̲ān [ q.v.], but including also Diwrigi and Kog̲h̲onia/Colonia-Ḳara Ḥiṣār S̲h̲arḳī. His territory accordingly lay between that of the Dānis̲h̲mendids [ q.v.] on the west, of the Saltuḳids [ q.v.] of Erzerum on the east, of the Byzantine province of Trebizond on the north and of the Artuḳid principalities [see artuḳids ] on the south; it thus commanded the traditional highway for inva…


(1,932 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(atabeg), title of a high dignitary under the Sald̲j̲ūḳids and their successors. The term is Turkish and first makes its appearance in Muslim history with the Sald̲j̲ūḳids; it is therefore reasonable to enquire whether any precedents exist in the Turkish societies of Central Asia. So far no occurrence of the actual word seems to have been reported and the fact that in the Ork̲h̲on civilisation there is apparently a person called ata , father, acting as a tutor to a young prince, is too vague to enable one to affirm a connexion; the same is true…


(57 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.), a term used to denote certain juridical categories of landed estates in Syria in the time of the Mamlūks. The word has no connection with the Arabic root f.-ṣ.-l ., but is derived, according to al-Nuwayrī, Nihāya , viii, 256, “from the Frankish” vassal . (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography Cl. Cahen, in JESHO, xviii (1975), 238.


(89 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
or Tald̲j̲iʾa , a method of protection by a superior of his inferiors, on which see the articles ḍayʿa and ḥimāya , adding to the bibliography Y. Linant de Bellefonds, Volonté interne et volonté déclarée en droit musulman, in Revue Intern , de Droit Comparé , x (1958), 513 ( tald̲j̲iʾa occurring in law as a fictitious sale with the object of gaining protection against confiscation, taxes, etc.; but the question arises of how the property is to be regained once the danger is over). (Cl. Cahen)


(2,034 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.) “guarantee”, a juridical term used mainly in connection with fiscal practice, in a manner which is still very difficult to define precisely. The particular field with which this discussion is concerned is a double one—that of the levying of the land-tax, k̲h̲arād̲j̲ [ q.v.], and that of special taxes, mukūs . As was already the case before the Arab conquest both in the Byzantine Empire and under the Sasanids, local communities were held jointly responsible by the Treasury for the payment at the required time of the ful…


(262 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Malik ), name of one of the Og̲h̲uz chieftains who set themselves up at K̲h̲urāsān after the dislocation of the kingdom of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid Sand̲j̲ar; unable to maintain his position there before the pressure of the K̲h̲wārizmian state, he found a way to profit from the dissensions among the Sald̲j̲ūḳids of Kirmān to lay hands on that principality (582/1186) and to hold it, in spite of hostilities on the borders of Sistān, Fārs, and the Persian Gulf, until his death in 591/1195. After his death, however, Kirmān in its turn became absorbed within the K̲h̲wārizmian empire, on account of in…


(4,149 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, (not urṭukids ), a Turkish dynasty which reigned over the, whole or part of Diyār Bakr, either independently or under Mongol protectorate, from the end of the 5th/11th to the beginning of the 9th/15th century. Artuḳ, son of Ekseb, belonged to the Turkoman tribe Döger [ q.v.]. In 1073 he was in Asia Minor, operating for and against the Byzantine Emperor ¶ ¶ Michael VII, but he later appears principally as an officer in the service of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳ Maliks̲h̲āh. In 1077 he brought the Carmathians of Baḥrayn under the rule of Maliks̲h̲āh; in 1079 Maliks̲…


(1,664 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(berkyaruk), fourth Sald̲j̲ūḳid Sulṭān, in whose time the visible decline of the regime began. Although the eldest of the sons of Maliks̲h̲āh, he was only thirteen years old on the latter’s death (S̲h̲awwāl 485/November 1092) and, unlike his father, who at a similar age had been guided by his vizier and atabeg Niẓām al-Mulk, he lacked a man of undisputed authority in his entourage. Moreover, Maliks̲h̲āh’s last wife, Turkān Ḵh̲ātūn, a woman also of the noblest birth, had dominated her husband in the lat…


(418 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Badr al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍāʾil al-Malik al-Raḥīm , a freedman, possibly black, of the last Zangids of Mosul, whose régime he prolonged. Designated by Arslān S̲h̲āh I on his death in 607/1210-1 as regent of the principality for his young son al-Ḳāhir, then by the latter (d. 615/1218) for his infant son, Arslān S̲h̲āh II, he was officially designated, with a caliphal diploma, as lord in 629/1232. The chronicles mention him especially for his interminable minor clashes with the lesser …


(97 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, one of the leaders of the group of the Og̲h̲uz of Ḵh̲urāsān which, after the capture and death of its leader Arslan b. Sald̲j̲ūḳ (427/1036?), was expelled from the province by G̲h̲aznawid troops on account of its depredations, and continued its pillaging across central and western Iran as far as the borders of Armenia and Upper Mesopotamia, where it was annihilated by the Bedouin and Kurds in 435/1044. See EI 1, s.v., the article sald̲j̲ūḳids , and Cl. Cahen, Le Maliknameh et l’histoire des origines seldjukides , in Oriens , 1949, 57. (Cl. Cahen)

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Yūsuf

(201 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Abu ’l-Ḳāsim al-Ḥakkār?), the private secretary and trusted adviser of the Būyid amīr ʿAḍud al-Dawla [ q.v.] from the very beginning to the end of his reign, and then three times alternatively the vizier and in disgrace in regard to his sons Ṣamṣām al-Dawla and Bahāʾ al-Dawla [ q.v. below]. He is the author of a collection of official correspondence ( ins̲h̲āʾ ), largely preserved in ms. Petermann 406 (Ahlwardt 8625), which is however limited to the period of ʿAḍud al-Dawla’s reign (some fragments lacking here are cited in al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, Yatīma , ii, 89-90) and…

ʿImād al-Dawla

(619 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, ʿAlī b. Buwayh (or Būyeh), the eldest by many years, but the least known, of the three Daylamī [ q.v.] brothers who became the founders of the dynasty of the Buwayhids or Būyids [ q.v.]. At first in the service, together with a group of his compatriots, of the Sāmānid Naṣr b. Aḥmad (321-9 [ q.v.]), then of his lieutenant in Iran, Mākān b. Kākī [ q.v.], he betrayed the latter in favour of his rival Mardāwīd̲j̲ [ q.v.], from whom he obtained, in equivocal circumstances (and thanks to his relations with the secretary of the governor of Rayy, the father of the future vizier …


(1,238 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Ärätnä, Ärdäni ?), name of a chief of Uyg̲h̲ur origin, who made his fortune in Asia Minor as an heir of the Ilk̲h̲ānid régime. The name is perhaps to be explained by Sanskrit ratna ‘jewel’, ¶ common among the Oyg̲h̲ur after the spread of Buddhism (communication from L. Bazin); this was of course no bar to the family becoming Muslim, like all the Mongols and Turks in the Ilk̲h̲ānid state. Eretna, who was probably an officer in the service of Čūbān/Čoban [see čūbānids ], settled in Asia Minor as a follower of the latter’s son, Tīmūrtās̲h̲, was appointed go…

Mad̲j̲d al-Mulk, Abu ’l-Faḍl Asʿad b. Muḥammad al-Ḳummī al-Balāsānī

(113 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, mustawfī or director of finances under the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Berk-yaruḳ [see barkyārūḳ ] in the early years of his reign and then vizier (490-2/1097-9), but whose death was brought about by the great military commanders in S̲h̲awwāl 492/September 1099 on an accusation of S̲h̲īʿi sympathies, and even of Ismāʿīlī ones, which he was said to have displayed during the struggle against the rival sultan Muḥammad b. Malik-S̲h̲āh [ q.v.]. ¶ (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography Cambr. hist. of Iran, index C. L. Klausner, The Seljuk vezirate, a study of civil administration 1055-1194, Cambridge, Mass. 197…

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan I

(562 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, also known to the Crusaders, like his father, under the name Sulaymān/Soliman, son of Sulaymān b. Ḳutlumus̲h̲ [ q.v.], second Sald̲j̲ūḳ prince of Asia Minor. At an early age, he was in Antioch when his father was killed in battle fighting Tutus̲h̲ [ q.v.], and he was handed over as a hostage to Malik-S̲h̲āh [ q.v.] who conquered Syria in 1086. On the death of the latter (1092) he managed to escape, and arrived in Nicaea, his father’s former residence, where he seems without much difficulty to have had himself accepted as sovereign by the semi-auton…


(484 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Behesnī in the Middle Ages), from the Syriac Bet Hesnā, a crossroads settlement at a height of more than 2,900 feet on the important junction of the Malaṭya-Aleppo and (Cilicia) Marʿas̲h̲-Diyār Bakr roads. Besni was the hinge between the series of strongholds north of the great bow of the Euphrates on the one hand, which protected the upper valleys of the right bank tributaries of this river from incursion from the plateaux and high ranges of the eastern Taurus, and on the other those towards t…


(298 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Īnālids , name of a Turcoman chief (from the old central-Asiatic title Yi̊nal) who made himself independent at Āmid (Diyār Bakr [ q.v.]) at the end of the 5th/11th century during the struggles among the successors of Maliks̲h̲āh, and name of the dynasty, which remained in power until the end of the 6th/12th century. Although they are mentioned in a few inscriptions, the historians have written little on the Īnālids. Masters of a place which was commercially and strategically important, they nevertheless held at Diyār Bakr a secondary place compared with the Artuḳ…
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