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Ellis, John Tracy

(154 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Jul 30, 1905, Seneca, Illinois – Oct 16, 1992, Washington, DC) was a Catholic priest and leading historian of American Catholic institutional and social development. Ellis was editor of The Catholic Historical Review (1941–1964) and lecturer at the Catholic University of America (1938–1964; 1977–1989). Before and during Vatican II, Ellis advocated social and institutional change within the Catholic Church, seeing change as one of the constants in the church's history. His most famous 1955 essay, American ¶ Catholics and the Intellectual Life, criticized …

Gibbons, James

(289 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Jul 23, 1834, Baltimore, MD – Mar 24, 1921, Baltimore), Catholic bishop of Richmond, Virginia (1872–1877), archbishop of Baltimore (1877–1921), and cardinal (1886–1921). Gibbons was the foremost American Catholic churchman during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He came to public prominence in the United States with the publication of Faith of Our Fathers (1876), an introduction to Catholic faith and practice that exhibited his missionary experiences among non-Catholics in Virginia and North Carolina. The text was a widely di…

Serra, Junípero

(114 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Nov 24, 1717, Petra, Majorca – Aug 28, 1784, near Monterey, CA), Franciscan missionary to the Indians in California. After a successful career as a professor of theology in Majorca and Mexico, Serra was appointed in 1767 as superior of the missionary effort in California. Between 1769 and 1784, he established nine missions between San Diego and San Francisco. In 1934, his cause for beatification was started, but was seriously challenged in the 1980s by critics of the Spanish devastation of Indian cultural life and successfully ended by Pope John Paul II. Patrick W. Carey B…

Marquette, Jacques

(207 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Jun 1, 1637, Laon, France – May 18, 1675, near Ludington, MI), French Jesuit missionary and priest to Canada and the midwestern United States. Before his ordination in 1665, Marquette taught in various schools in France (1656–1665). After ordination he was sent to Trois Rivières in Canada, where he learned the Algonkian (Native American Indians: II, 1) language and culture for two years. In 1668 he went to Sault St. Marie to evangelize the North American Indian tribes there. Afte…

Ireland, John

(168 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Sep 11, 1838, Burnchurch, County Kilkenny, Ireland – Sep 25, 1918, St. Paul, MI) was ¶ a Catholic bishop (1884–1888) and archbishop of St. Paul, Minnesota (1888–1918). Ireland was known as an Americanist bishop after the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore (1884) because he zealously tried to get the Catholic Church to assimilate American values. An eloquent and gifted orator, Ireland called for the Americanization of the new immigrants and Catholic cooperation with the public schools. Within his…

Hughes, John Joseph

(168 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Jun 24, 1797, Annaloghan, County Tyrone, Ireland – Jan 3, 1864, New York) was ¶ Catholic bishop (1842–1850) and archbishop (1850–1864) of New York and the most visible symbol of Catholicism in the United States during the time of his episcopacy. Hughes worked to mold the immigrant Catholics of New York into one Catholic body, defended their rights to exist as Catholics in a predominantly Protestant society, forcefully eliminated lay trustee control over parish life, and reasserted episcopal and…

Murray, John Courtney

(297 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Sep 12, 1904, New York – Aug 16, 1967, New York), American Jesuit priest and theologian. Murray was ordained a Jesuit priest (1933) and shortly thereafter received his doctorate in theology from the Gregorian University in Rome (1937). From 1937 to 1967 he taught theology at the Jesuit Woodstock Seminary in Maryland, edited Theological Studies (1941–1967) and was associate editor of America (1945–1946). During Vatican II he was a theological peritus. Murray was the principal 20th-century American Catholic theoretician on religious liberty …

Carroll, John

(130 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Jan 19, 1736, Upper Marlboro, MD – Mar 12, 1815, Baltimore, MD), Catholic bishop (1789–1808) and archbishop of Baltimore (1808–1815). As the first Catholic bishop in the United States, Carroll was primarily responsible for organizing the Catholic Church and thereby setting the tone for the participation of Catholicism in the post-revolutionary American society. Though Carroll wrote no systematic treatises on the Enlightenment impulses (e.g. repu…

Keane, John Joseph

(223 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Sep 12, 1839, Ballyshannon, Donegal, Ireland – Sep 22, 1918, Dubuque, IA, USA), Catholic bishop of Richmond, VA (1878–1888), first ¶ rector of the Catholic University of America (1889–1896) and archbishop of Dubuque (1900–1911). Keane was a leading Americanist bishop during and after the Third Plenary Council (of Catholic bishops) of Baltimore. 1884. From 1886 to 1889 he organized and helped establish the Catholic University of America. Together with Archbishops J. Ireland and J. Gibbons he opposed a…


(135 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] was a democratic lay-led movement within the American Catholic Church between about 1795 and 1860 that tried to gain control of church property and the hiring and firing of clergy at the parish level. Lay trustees, elected representatives of their parishes had, according to American laws of incorporation, legal rights over church properties. They appealed to canon laws on lay patronage to support their claims to appoint and dismiss their pastors. The movement created conflicts in …


(133 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[English Version] (wörtl. »Treuhänderschaft«), demokratische Laienbewegung innerhalb der amer. röm.-kath. Kirche, die von etwa 1795 bis 1860 die Kontrolle über den Kirchenbesitz sowie die Personalentscheidungen über den Klerus auf der Gemeindeebene erstrebte. Trustees waren gewählte Gemeindevertreter, die nach amer. Eingemeindungsgesetzen einen Rechtsanspruch auf Kircheneigentum hatten. Bei ihrer Forderung nach Einsetzungs- und Entlassungsbefugnis über ihre Pfarrer beriefen sie sich auf das im Kir…


(96 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[English Version] Serra, Junípero (24.11.1717 Petra, Mallorca – 28.8.1784 nahe Monterey, CA), Franziskanerpater, Missionar der Indianer Kaliforniens. Nach erfolgreicher Theologieprofessur auf Mallorca und in Mexiko wurde S.1767 Leiter der Mission in Kalifornien. 1769–1784 errichtete er neun Missionsstationen zw. San Diego und San Francisco. 1934 begann der Seligsprechungsprozeß, der, trotz ernsthafter Einwände von seiten der Kritiker der Zerstörung indianischer Kultur durch die Spanier in den 80er …


(149 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[English Version] Ryan, John Augustine (25.5.1869 Vermillion, MN – 16.9.1945 St. Paul, MN), kath. Priester und Moraltheologe. In der 1. Hälfte des 20.Jh. war R. einer der wichtigsten amer.-kath. Gesellschaftstheoretiker. Er versuchte die Katholische Soziallehre mit empirischer Wirtschaftswiss. zu verbinden. Nach dem Abschluß seiner beiden wichtigsten Werke über Gerechtigkeit in der Wirtschaft, »A Living Wage« (1906) und »Distributive Justice« (1916), setzte sich R. für einen gesetzlichen Mindestlohn…

Ryan, John Augustine

(155 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (May 25, 1869, Vermillion, MN – Sep 16, 1945, St Paul, MN), Catholic priest and moral theologian. John Ryan was the foremost American Catholic social analyst during the first half of the 20th century. He believed that Catholic social teaching had to be wedded to the empirical study of economics. After writing his two most important theoretical works on economic justice, A Living Wage (1906) and Distributive Justice (1916), Ryan promoted minimum-wage legislation and lobbied in state and federal legisla-¶ tures for protective laws for workers. He was director o…

Lamy, Jean Baptiste

(186 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Oct 11, 1814, Lempedes, France – Feb 13, 1888, Santa Fe, NM). Lamy was ordained in 1838, became an assistant pastor in Chapre, France, in 1838/1839, and then a missionary priest in Ohio and Kentucky (1839–1850). In 1850 he was named vicar apostolic of New Mexico, then bishop (1853–1875), and archbishop of Sante Fe until his retirement (1875–1885). Lamy secured the assistance of the Sisters of Loreto for Catholic schooling (1852), the Sisters of Charity (1856; first hospital and o…

Hecker, Isaac Thomas

(301 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1819, New York – Dec 22, 1888, New York) was a Catholic priest and the founder of the Congregation of Missionary Priests of St. Paul the Apostle (CSP). Hecker grew up as a Methodist (Methodists), participated as a young man in 1843 in the communal life of the American Transcendentalists (Transcendentalism: II) on Brook Farm (MA), converted to Catholicism in 1844, and was ordained as a Redemptorist to the priesthood. From 1851 to 1857 he organized congregational evangelism…

Knights of Columbus

(172 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] are a Catholic fraternal insurance society, founded in New Haven, CT, in 1882 by Fr. Michael J. McGivney. In 1995 the society numbered 1.6 million members in over 10,000 local parish and diocesan chapters throughout the United States and in various provinces of Canada, Mexico, the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. The Knights of Columbus began as a small local fraternal society organized for benevolent purposes and by 1905 had spread across the ¶ United States. Led by the desire to unite faith and patriotism (symbolized by its namesake, Christopher Co…