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Simeon, Charles

(169 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Sep 24, 1759, Reading, Berkshire – Nov 13, 1836, Cambridge, UK), English evangelical clergyman. In 1782 he was made a fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, and, in the following year, appointed vicar of Holy Trinity Church. Despite initial opposition, Simeon persevered, eventually becoming one of the most influential figures in the Church of England. His rise to prominence was due to a combination of influences, including his innovative parish ministry, his skill in nurturing seve…

Rowntree, John William

(158 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Sep 4, 1868, York – Mar 9, 1905, New York). Born into a prominent Quaker family, he left Bootham School, York, in 1886 to enter the family cocoa business. In 1892 he married Constance Naish (1871–1928) of Bristol, with whom he had five children. Beginning in 1893, Rowntree provided inspired and energetic leadership to the Quaker cause, especially through his promotion of adult schools as a means of securing an education for lay ministry. He also published widely, including Present Day Papers (1898–1899), A History of the Adult School Movement (1903), and Palestine Notes

Pearson, John

(172 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Feb 28, 1613, Great Snoring, Norfolk – Jul 16, 1686, Chester), Anglican theologian and bishop. Educated at Eton and at Queens’ and King’s Colleges, Cambridge, he was ordained in 1639, but had little experience of parish ministry. As a result of his support of the Royalist cause in the Civil War, he was deprived of his appointments; he lived quietly in London during the Commonwealth (O. Cromwell). At the Restoration, he was appointed to a quick succession of Cambridge honors, incl…

Paley, William

(318 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jul, 1743, Peterborough, UK – May 25, 1805, Lincoln, UK), Anglican theologian, who was educated by his father and then studied at Cambridge before being elected Fellow of Christ’s College there in 1766. In his first book The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy (1785), which later became a favorite educational resource, Paley outlined a system of utilitarian ethics (Utilitarianism; see also England, Theology in) in which he anticipated many of the themes of his contemporary, J. Bentham). Paley proved great originality in his Horae Paulinae (1790) in which…

Sharp, Granville

(110 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 10, 1735, Durham, England – Jul 6, 1813, Fulham, a borough of London), evangelical and abolitionist (Slavery). In 1765 he became involved in opposing the slave trade, advancing numerous legal ¶ cases on behalf of slaves held in England. His efforts culminated in the famous “Fall Somerset” case of 1772 which outlawed the forcible removal of slaves from the country. Sharp also developed an interest in African culture and assisted in the relocation of a number of freed slaves to Sierra Leone. Grayson Carter Bibliography Memoirs of Granville Sharp, ed. T. Burgess, 1820 E.…

Dissolution of the Monasteries Act

(275 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] As the result of moral, economic, political and religious factors, Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries in England and Wales in the 1530s. Assisted by T. Cromwell, the process continued intermittently. In 1536, Parliament passed an act – the co-called “Dissolution of the Monasteries Act” – that led to the closure of around 250 of the smaller houses of the orders (roughly a third of the …

More, Hannah

(155 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Feb 2, 1745, Stapleton, Avon, near Bristol – Sep 7, 1833, Clifton), evangelical writer and philanthropist. More was educated at a school in Bristol established by one of her sisters. Around 1773 she came into contact with the literary circle that gathered around S. Johnson, who urged her to publish her poems and plays. She later became identified with the evangelical Clapham Sect, with J. Newton serving as her principal spiritual adviser. Besides her numerous publications she est…

Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick Stephen

(186 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug 2, 1802, Seville – Feb 15, 1865, London), cardinal archbishop of Westminster. Born in Spain, son of Irish parents, he was ¶ raised in Ireland and England. He attended Unshaw College, Durham, before studying at the English College in Rome (D.D. 1824). After his ordination in 1825, he rose quickly through a succession of appointments, including rector of the English College in Rome (1828), coadjutor to Bishop Walsh, vicar-apostolic and president of St. Mary’s College, Oscott (1840). After the reestab…

Tait, Archibald Campbell

(167 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1811, Edinburgh – Dec 3, 1882, Episcopal Place at Addington), archbishop of Canterbury. Educated at Edinburgh and Oxford, Tait converted to the Church of England in 1830. Three years later, he was appointed tutor at Balliol College, Oxford. Though sympathetic to the aims of the Oxford Movement, in 1841 he joined in the public protest against Tract 90 (J.H. Newman). Talented and widely admired, Tait quickly advanced through a succession of clerical appointments, including headmaster of Rugby (1842, succeeding T. Arnold); bishop of…

Marsh, Herbert

(160 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 10, 1757, Faversham, England – May 1, 1839, Peterborough, England), Anglican theologian and bishop. Educated at Cambridge, in 1779 he became a fellow of St. John's College. While studying in Germany under J.D. Michaelis, he was exposed to the new biblical scholarship, later translating Michaelis's Introduction to the New Testament. In 1807 Marsh was appointed Lady Margaret Professor at Cambridge. With his enthusiastically received lectures on biblical criticism (1809–1816), he was among the first to popularize the new German…

Thornton, Henry

(131 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Mar 10, 1760, London – Jan 16, 1815, Kensington Gore), philanthropist, banker, member of parliament, and abolitionist (Abolitionism). Younger son of the wealthy evangelical merchant John Thornton, he worked in banking before being elected member of parliament in 1782. His writings on economic affairs were much admired. In Parliament he was active in humanitarian affairs and, as a member of the celebrated Clapham Sect, joined with W. Wilberforce in advancing the abolitionist cause…

Watson, Richard

(111 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Feb 22, 1781, Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire – Jan 8, 1833, London), Wesleyan Methodist theologian (Methodists: I). Watson was a member of a small group of clergy and laity that contributed to the formation of Wesleyan Methodist identity, following the death of J. Wesley and its separation from the Church of England. Appointed to a succession of influential positions in the Church, he also published widely, clarifying and extending Wesley’s theology. Grayson Carter Bibliography Works include: Theological Institutes, 6 vols., 1823–1829 On Watson: T. Jackson, M…

Thompson, Francis

(157 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1859, Preston, Lancashire – Nov 13, 1907, London), English Roman Catholic poet. In 1885, having failed to become a priest or doctor, and having succumbed to opium addiction, he relocated from his native Lancashire to London. Here, while living in filth, despair and penury, he came to know Wilfred Meynell, critic and editor of the Catholic magazine Merry England. Meynell befriended Thompson and was the first to recognize his poetic genius, which arose from a combination of his destitution and Christian faith. Before his premature d…

Spencer, John

(171 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1630, Bocton, Kent, England, baptized Oct 31, 1630 – May 27, 1693, probably Cambridge, England), English theologian and Hebraist. He ¶ served as fellow (1655) and master (1667) of Corpus Christi College, in Cambridge, before being appointed dean of Ely (1677). His most influential work, De Legibus Hebraeorum (1685), traced the religious antiquities of the ancient Hebrews and laid the foundation for the subsequent emergence of the study of comparative religion. He was the first scholar to observe the similarities between Hebre…

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG)

(277 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] The SPG was established under royal charter by T. Bray in 1701 to supply the “want of learned and orthodox ministers” in the plantations, colonies, and “factories beyond the seas.” The rapidly expanding British Empire presented both challenges and opportunities for the Church of England. The SPG set out to “settle the State of Religion” for the colo­nists before undertaking “the conversion of the Natives.” During the 18th century the SPG’s efforts focused on the American colonies,…

Liddon, Henry Parry

(182 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug 20, 1829, North Stoneham, Hampshire – Sep 9, 1890, Weston-super-Mare, Gloucestershire) was an Anglican cleric. Educated at Oxford, he was ordained in 1852. After a succession of church appointments, he became, in 1870, a canon of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, where his able preaching attracted sizable congregations. A leader of the catholic revival (Oxford Movement), Liddon opposed the advance of both its ritualist and liberal-Catholic wings; the publication of Lux Mundi (1889) proved particularly distressing as well as the growing use of criti…

Ramsey, Arthur Michael

(136 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 14, 1904, Cambridge, UK – Apr 23, 1988, Oxford, UK), archbishop of Canterbury, was a much beloved and admired priest, theologian, and bishop of broad, yet traditional, Anglo-Catholic leanings. After Cambridge Ramsey was ordained in the Church of England and served in both parish and university appointments. In 1952 Ramsey became bishop of Durham, in 1956 archbishop of York, and in 1961 archbishop of Canterbury, where he labored tirelessly in mission work and the wider Anglica…

Sancroft, William

(205 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1617, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England – Nov 24, 1693, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England), archbishop of Canterbury and Nonjuror. Fellow of Emmanuel College in Cambridge from 1642 to 1651, he fled to the Continent after being rejected from his Cambridge fellowship by the Puritans. After the Restoration in 1660, he gained rapid preferment in the Church, being elevated to archbishop in 1668. While in office, he labored in various ways to strengthen the spiritual and political …

Law, William

(253 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1686, King's Cliffe, Northamptonshire – Apr 9, 1761, King's Cliffe), Nonjuror and English theologian. He was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow in 1711. In 1714, upon the accession of George I, Law refused the Oath of Allegiance, was deprived of his fellowship, and joined the Jacobites (Jacobitism). He later served as private tutor to the Gibbons family in Putney. In 1740, he retired to his birthplace, where he became domestic chaplain to a small ho…

Neale, John Mason

(178 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jan 24, 1818, London – Aug 6, 1866, East Grinstead, West Sussex), Anglican author and hymn writer. Having been influenced by the Catholic revival (High Church movement [I]), at Cambridge he helped found the Camden Society. Though ordained in 1841, ill-health prevented his installation into a parish. From 1846 on he served as warden of Sackville College, Sussex. Here, he divided his time between writing and the Sisterhood of St. Margaret, which (in 1855) he founded to educate girl…
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