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Stapel

(169 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[English Version] Stapel, Wilhelm (27.10.1882 Calbe – 1.6.1954 Hamburg), polit. Publizist, Schriftsteller; Dr. phil. 1911. S. wandte sich antimodernistisch-völkischen Vorstellungen zu und wurde zu einem bestimmenden Vertreter der »konservativen Revolution«. 1918–1938 gab er mit Albrecht Erich Günther die Zeitschrift »Dt. Volkstum« heraus und vertrat mit prot. Ausrichtung und enger Freundschaft zu E. Hirsch eine aggressiv völkisch-nationalistische Position mit antisemitischem Duktus. S. bestimmte, v…

Oettingen

(141 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[English Version] Oettingen, Alexander Konstantin v. (12.12.1827 Wissust, Livland – 20.8.1906 Dorpat), ev. Theologe; 1856–1890 o. Prof. für Syst. Theol. in Dorpat. Neben zahlreichen kleineren Gelegenheitsschriften (Ueber akuten und chronischen Selbstmord, 1881) und einem traditionsorientierten dogmatischen Entwurf (Luth. Dogmatik, 3 Bde., 1897–1902) ist es O.s bleibender Verdienst, mit seinem Werk »Die Moralstatistik und die christl. Sittenlehre. Versuch einer Socialethik auf empirischer Grundlage« (…

Schweizer

(161 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[English Version] Schweizer, Alexander (14.3.1808 Murten – 3.7.1888 Zürich); nach Examen und Ordination studierte Sch. 1832 noch ein Jahr in Berlin. Tief beeindruckt von F. Schleiermacher avancierte Sch. zu einem seiner wenigen, ihn produktiv weiterführenden Schüler. 1835 wurde er a.o., 1840 o. Prof. für Praktische Theol. in Zürich sowie ab 1844 Pfarrer am Großmünster. Der konsequente ref. Vertreter von Vermittlungstheologie und Union (: I.) wirkte in breiter lit. Tätigkeit über die Praktische Theo…

Röhr

(178 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[English Version] Röhr, Johann Friedrich (30.7.1777 Roßbach bei Naumburg/Saale – 15.6.1848 Weimar). Seit 1796 studierte R. in Leipzig Theol. und wurde 1801 Hilfsprediger an der Universitätskirche; 1802 Hilfslehrer in Schulpforta, 1804 Pfarrer in Ostrau bei Zeitz, 1820 Oberpfarrer und Generalsuperintendent in Weimar, wo er am 26.3.1832 die »Trauerworte bei v.Goethe's Bestattung« sprach. R.s »Briefe über den Rationalismus« (1813) lieferten diesem in seiner theol.-kirchl. Gestalt eine programmatische G…

Schafft

(175 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[English Version] Schafft, Hermann (2.12.1883 Langenstein bei Halberstadt – 2.6.1959 Kassel), ab 1903 Studium der Theol. in Halle, Berlin und Tübingen; ab 1907 Übernahme kirchl. Funktionen und von bes. sozialen Einsatz geprägte Vikariats- und Pfarrtätigkeit. Sch. war der engste Freund P. Tillichs, dessen Konzept eines rel. Sozialismus (Religiöse Sozialisten) mit den Elementen Autonomie, Heteronomie und Theonomie er unterstützte. Mittelpunkt seines publizistischen Wirkens wurde das Periodikum »Neuwe…

Wegscheider

(229 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[English Version] Wegscheider, Julius August Ludwig (17.9.1771 Küblingen bei Schöppenstedt – 27.1.1849 Halle); ab 1787 Studium in Helmstedt, wo W. durch den Rationalisten H. Ph.K. Henke geprägt wurde. Nach Hauslehrertätigkeit in Hamburg (1795–1805) und kurzem Einsatz als Repetent in Göttingen wurde W. 1806 in Rinteln Prof. für Theol. und Philos., ab 1810 in Halle für Theol. Auf der Basis eingehender Rezeption I. Kants sowie unter krit. Aufnahme bisheriger theol. Traditions- und Dogmenbildung veröff…

Ecclesiastical statistics

(864 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
Attempts to record mass phenomena in numbers, that is, statistically, go all the way back to the high cultures of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the modern period statistics developed in various areas (e.g. in university statistics in the 17th century, then political arithmetic). Basic to this were efforts to record legal structures - a concern which, under Enlightenment influence, was to lead in the theological field to proofs of the existence of God [3].The medieval administrations of a communal and ecclesiastical character provide comprehensive material for historic…
Date: 2019-10-14

Modernism (church)

(671 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
The term “modernism” (from the Latin  modo, “just now”, “presently”) covers a wide spectrum of meaning and a specific historical dimension of depth. It has denoted positions in literature, art, and architecture since the mid-19th century, but its dominant use has been in ecclesiastical contexts.Continuing the opposition of the “old” and the (truly or purportedly) “new” that began in antiquity, the neologism modernus began in the early Middle Ages to be used to refer to a present aspiring to be superior to the past (cf. Late modern period). From the 10th ce…
Date: 2020-04-06

Biblical criticism

(2,095 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
1. Concept “Biblical criticism”, like the related “biblical scholarship,” is the umbrella term for method-led critical exegesis, the interpretation of Old and New Testament canonical biblical texts as well as apocryphal and deuterocanonical writings (i.e. the canon transmitted only in the Septuagint). Using principles of ancient philology, a solid historical-critical set of methodological tools formed from this in the modern period (Textual criticism; Historical method). Its interpretative premise…
Date: 2019-10-14

Munk, Kaj

(263 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Kaj Harald Leininger Petersen; Jan 13, 1898, Maribo, Lolland – Jan 4, 1944, near Silkeborg), Danish writer and theologian. After study in Copenha-¶ gen, from 1924 he was a minister in Vedersø, West-Jutland. S.Kierkegaard exercised a lasting influence on him. He was also influenced by H. Ibsen's naturalism and by the social perspective of Martin Andersen Nexø. Prominent in his work, in addition to biblical figures ( Pilatus, 1917), was much material, some borrowed from antiquity, the Nordic medieval milieu, and also from the 19th century, in whic…

Ruckteschell, Nikolai von

(161 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1853, Sinferopol, Crimea – Oct 19, 1910, Hamburg), Lutheran pastor and theologian. After studying in Dorpat, he was appointed pastor to the deaconesses’ house in St. Petersburg in 1879; in 1890 he was appointed to the Friedenskirche in Hamburg-Eilbeck. His outstanding social commitment was focused on the notion of community. In response to the social crisis, Ruckteschell called for a restructuring of economic and social life. In Christian socialism he saw a “dangerous blend of natural and religious sensibility” ( Personalgemeinde, 156). The social ques…

Strauß, Gerhard Friedrich Abraham

(190 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Sep 24, 1786, Iserlohn – Jul 19, 1863, Berlin). After studies in Halle and Heidelberg from 1805 to 1808, with C. Daub as his most important teacher, Strauß was appointed pastor in Ronsdorf in 1809 and in Elberfeld in 1814; from 1822 to 1859 he was professor of practical theology in Berlin as well as fourth court chaplain and cathedral preacher (1856 senior court chaplain). He was appointed senior consistorial councilor in 1836 and made a member of the High Consistory in 1850. He was a close ¶ friend of J.W.A. Neander and an outstanding preacher and pastor. With a re…

Umbreit, Friedrich Wilhelm Karl

(186 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Apr 11, 1795, Sonneborn, near Gotha – Apr 26, 1860, Heidelberg). After studying philosophy and theology from 1814 to 1817, with J.G. Eichhorn as an outstanding teacher, Umbreit was appointed lecturer in Near Eastern languages at Göttingen in 1818; in 1820 he became associate professor of Old Testament and Near Eastern philology at the faculty of philosophy at Heidelberg and was promoted to full professor in 1823; in 1829 he became professor of OT at the faculty of theology, which…

Schenkel, Daniel

(200 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1813, Dörperlin, Canton Zürich – May 18, 1885, Heidelberg). After studying in Basel and Göttingen, with W.M.L. de Wette, J.K.L. Gieseler, and G.C.F. Lücke as his most influential teachers, the Reformed student received his habilitation from Basel in 1838. In 1841 he was appointed senior pastor in Schaffhausen; he held a variety of other offices. In 1846 he sharply attacked German Catholicism ( Die protestantische Geistlichkeit und die Deutsch-Katholiken, 21846). In 1850 he succeeded de Wette as professor at Basel; in 1851 he moved to Heidelb…

Neander, Johann Wilhelm August

(599 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (orig. David Mendel; Jan 17, 1789, Göttingen – Jul 14, 1850, Berlin). In 1806, Neander converted from Judaism to Christianity in Hamburg, and in 1809 he graduated there, after studying theology and philosophy in Halle, Göttingen, Wittenberg, and Heidelberg. In 1811, he gained his Habilitation in Heidelberg, where in 1812 he became associate professor of church history and history of doctrine. In 1813, he received an appointment in Berlin, the chief location of his academic activit…

Weisse, Christian Hermann

(203 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1801, Leipzig – Sep 19, 1866, Leipzig) studied philosophy in several places, including Leipzig, where he began lecturing in 1823. From 1828 to 1837 he taught there as associate professor of philosophy; after interruptions, he was ¶ appointed full professor in 1845. Dissociating himself from G.W.F. Hegel, he espoused a nuanced theism (II); especially in I.H. Fichte’s Zeitschrift für Philosophie und speculative Theologie, he wrote as a late advocate of Idealistic theorizing. In addition, after critical acceptance of D.F. Strauß’s Leben Jesu, he defended t…

Wegscheider, Julius August Ludwig

(266 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Sep 17, 1771, Küblingen, near Schöppenstedt – Jan 27, 1849, Halle). In 1787 Wegscheider began his studies at Helmstedt, where he was influenced by the rationalist H.P.K. Henke. After working as a private tutor in Hamburg (1705–1805) and a brief period as a lecturer in Göttingen, he was appointed professor of theology and philosophy at Rinteln; in 1810 he went to Halle as professor of theology. On the basis of an extensive adoption of the ideas of I. Kant and a critical analysis of earlier theological traditional and dogmatic structures, in 1815 he published his Institution…

Lücke, Gottfried Christian Friedrich

(310 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1791, Egeln near Magdeburg – Feb 14, 1855, Göttingen). After periods of undergraduate and graduate study in Halle an der Saale and Göttingen, Lücke became assistant professor in Berlin (1818), professor of New Testament and church history in Bonn (1819), and of New Testament and systematic theology in Göttingen (1827). In 1839, he joined the Consistorial Council and in 1843 became abbot of Bursfelde Abbey. Lücke may be considered the most important student of F.D.E. Schleiermacher; he published his teacher's Hermeneutik posthumously in 1838. In his Grundriß …

Steffens, Henrik

(352 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (May 2, 1773, Stavanger, Denmark [now Norway] – Feb 13, 1845, Berlin). Beginning in 1790, Steffens studied natural history in Copenhagen and Kiel, where he taught as a lecturer in 1796. In 1798 he traveled to Jena. J.G. Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre (ET: The Science of Knowing, 2005) and especially F.W.J. Schelling’s Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur (1797; ET: Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature, 1988) and Von der Weltseele (1798) influenced him deeply. In Freiberg he studied at the Mining Academy and published Beyträge zur innern Naturgeschichte der Erde (1801), dedi…

Schafft, Hermann

(204 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Dec 2, 1883, Langenstein, near Halberstadt – Jun 2, 1959, Kassel). Beginning in 1903, Schafft studied theology in Halle, Berlin, and Tübingen; after 1907 he took on various church functions and pastoral ministries, with an emphasis on social service. He was P. Tillich’s closest friend and supported Tillich’s concept of a religious socialism (Religious socialists) based on the elements of autonomy, heteronomy, and theonomy. He was a leading advocate of the Neuwerk movement; the focus of his journalistic work was the periodical Neuwerk, which he edited after 193…
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