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(1,149 words)

Author(s): Clart, Philip
[German Version] I. General Facts Also known by its Portuguese name Formosa, the island of Taiwan lies some 160 km to the east of the Chinese province of Fujian in the Pacific Ocean and covers an area of roughly 36,000 km2 (Asia, see map). From the 16th century onward, it became the target of increasing immigration from the nearby Chinese mainland, in the course of which the native Malayo-Polynesian population was gradually driven out of the fertile plains and into the central mountains. Following shortlived colonization attempts by t…


(918 words)

Author(s): Clart, Philip
[English Version] I. Allgemeines Die auch unter ihrem port. Namen Formosa bekannte, 36 000 km 2 große Insel T. liegt ca.160 km östlich der chinesischen Provinz Fujian im Pazifischen Ozean (Asien, s. Karte). Ab dem 16.Jh. wurde sie ein Zielgebiet zunehmender Einwanderung vom nahen chinesischen Festland, wobei die malayo-polynesische Urbevölkerung aus den fruchtbaren Ebenen allmählich in das zentrale Bergmassiv abgedrängt wurde. Nach kurzlebigen holländischen und span. Kolonisierungsversuchen kam T. ab 1661 …


(4,681 words)

Author(s): Moritz, Ralf | Clart, Philip
[German Version] I. History (to the 19th Century) – II. Confucianism in the 20th Century – III. Confucianism outside China – IV. Ethics and Social Philosophy – V. Religious Elements in Confucianism – VI. Literature I. History (to the 19th Century) Confucianism is an ethico-political teaching with reli- gious elements (see V below), which originated in ancient China and which derives the order of the world from the moral qualification of the individual. Its basic inventory of norms and values was formed between the 6th and 3rd centuries bce. At first, this was derived from …