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Babylonian Judaism

(1,503 words)

Author(s): Oppenheimer, Aharon | Cohen, Mark R. | Rejwan, Nissim
[German Version] I. Antiquity – II. Middle Ages – III. Modern Times I. Antiquity The Jewish community in Babylonia was the oldest in the Diaspora. From the days of the biblical Exile, it existed without interruption throughout antiquity. The decentralized, quasi-feudal structure of the state in Babylonia during the Parthian period allowed Jews there to govern themselves in various areas of life, not…


(11,934 words)

Author(s): Schenkel, Wolfgang | Weintritt, Otfried | Assmann, Jan | Bergman, Jan | Modrzejewski, Joseph Mélèze | Et al.
[German Version] I. General – II. History and Society – III. Religion and Culture I. General 1. Name/Designations In Egyptian-Coptic, Egypt is “the black (i.e. land)” (Egyptian *Kū́mut, Coptic Kēme, etc.) after the dark soil, in Semitic languages, generally, Miṣr-, etc., in Hebrew also מָצוֹר / Māṣôr (“border,” i.e. “borderland”?), in Greek after a sanctuary of the god Ptah as a designation for the old capital city Memphis, Aígyptos, i.e. Aígupto-s (in contemporary Egyptian perhaps *Hekoptáḥ). 2. Geography The central area of the country is the river oasis of the lowe…