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Helcias

(170 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Relative and friend of King Herodes [1] Agrippa I Relative and friend of King  Herodes [1] Agrippa I (Jos. Ant. Iud. 19,9,1; 20,7,1), in AD 40 a member of the deputation to the Syrian governor P. Petronius (ibid. 18,8,4), which achieved its goal of stopping Caligula's statue from being erected in the Temple; after that he probably took over the position of commander-in-chief of the army from Silas (ibid. 19,6,3; 7,1), whom he had killed after Agrippa's death in AD 44 (ibid. 19,8,3). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) [German version] [2] Temple treasurer in Jerusalem Temple treas…

Heliades

(79 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
(Ἡλιάδης; Hēliádēs). [German version] [1] Officer of Alexander [13] Balas Officer of  Alexander [13] Balas, whom he betrayed after the defeat he suffered in 145 BC at Oenoparas at the hands of Ptolemy VI and  Demetrius [8] II (Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,4,8), with another officer and a north Syrian Bedouin sheikh, in exchange for securities offered by the victors, and helped to murder (Diod. Sic. 32,10,1). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) [German version] [2] Sisters of Helios see  Helios

Emesa

(386 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Zenobia | | Coloniae | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Limes | Pompeius | Rome (Amm. Marc. 14,8,9; Plin. HN 5,19,81 Hemeseni), city in Syria on the Orontes, today's Ḥimṣ (< Byzantine Χέμψ; Chémps). According to archaeological evidence it had been settled from the 3rd millennium BC but E. has been known to us only from Pompey's time as the seat of a clan of Arab ‘kings’, who were Roman vassals from the time of  Herodes Agrippa I (Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,5,4; …

Bethsaida

(189 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pompeius (Aramaic bēt ṣaydā, ‘house of the catch’ or ‘of the booty’). Place in Gaulanitis ( Batanaea) on Lake Genezareth (in today's plain el-ibṭeḥa) east of the confluence with the Jordan; established as a city in 3 BC by the tetrarch  Herodes Philippus and named Iulias after Augustus' daughter (Jos. Ant. 18,2,1; Bell. 2,9,1; probably today's et-tell), only 2 kms further inland), but in all four gospels mentioned with an Aramaic name (probably just the fishing settlement on the lake, today's ḫirbet el-araǧ). B./Iulias was…

Gamala

(98 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] (modern Ḫirbat ehdeb). Town in lower Gaulanitis ( Batanaea; Jos. BI 4,1,1) with a large Jewish component in the population (Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,15,3; BI 1,4,8) because of the settlement policy of  Alexander [16] Iannaios. Under the Zealots and  Iosephus (cf. Vita passim), G. therefore became a bulwark against the Romans (Jos. BI 2,20, 4; 6). After an uprising in AD 68, the town was captured by Vespasian, who had all the inhabitants put to death as punishment (Jos. BI 4,1,3-10). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) Bibliography O. Keel, M. Küchler, Orte und Landschaften der Bibel…

Anti-Semitism

(937 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] The term anti-Semitism, coined in 1879 by Wilhelm Marr, wrongly assumes the existence of a uniform race speaking the Semitic languages. It also integrates into the ideology, which underlies this error and is expressed in this self-characterization, earlier (Christian) religious, political, social and cultural motifs of anti-‘Semitic’ behaviour in the 19th cent. It glances over the fact that such behaviour was not directed against Semites in general but exclusively against Jews. Th…

Cheslimus

(202 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] Jos. Ant. Jud. 1,6,2 (§ 137 N.) calls Cheslimus (Χέσλοιμος; Chésloimos) the eponym of a tribe descended from the Egyptians, which in his model is called kasluḥı̄m (Gen. 10.14 and 1 Chr. 1.12; LXX Χασλ- and Χασμωνι[ε]ιμ, Vulg. C(h)asluim). In Josephus their kindred people are the  Philistines, whilst in his model these had previously inhabited the land of the kasluḥı̄m. If the commentary which states this does not belong to the kaptōrı̄m (cf. Jer 47,4 and Am 9,7), then the kaptōrı̄m must have settled in the coastal areas of Egypt, which were attacked in the 1…

Xylophoria

(103 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] (by analogy with plur., ἡ τῶν ξυλοφορίων ἑορτή/ hē tôn xylophoríōn heortḗ). The Jewish '(festival of) wood-carrying'. Once a year (middle of August/beginning of September) it celebrated, possibly from as early as the end of the 5th cent. BC (Neh 10,35; 13,31) and probably until the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD (Taan. 4,4: Simon ben Azzai, c. AD 110), the fetching of wood, which was, or - after the destruction of the Temple (III.) - would had been, necessary to maintain the eternal fire which burned for the morning and evening burnt sacrifices (Jos. BI 2,17,6). Colpe, Cars…

Am(m)athous

(672 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Ἀμ(μ)αθοῦς; Am(m)athoûs). [German version] [1] Fortress to the east of the Jordan A fortress to the east of the Jordan, tell 'ammatā, which towers over the north bank of the wādi raǧib and has control over three roads, one of which runs close beside it on the west towards Pella ( ṭabaqāt faḥil) (Eus. Onom. 22,24) [1; 2]. Ceramics found here have so far shown no evidence of either pre-Hellenistic settlement or Cypriot imports [3. 44; 4. 301]. After 98 BC it was taken by  Alexander Iannaeus from the tyrant Theodorus of Philadelphia and razed to th…

Religion

(13,714 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Assmann, Jan (Heidelberg) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) | Et al.
I. Introduction [German version] A. Definition of the concept 'Religion', the substantive for describing the religious, denotes a system of common practices, individual ideas about faith, codified norms and examples of theological exegesis whose validity is derived chiefly from an authoritative principle or being. For the academic study of religion, conversely, the word is a purely heuristic category in which those practices, ideas, norms and theological constructs are examined historically; however, the…