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ANDIA

(271 words)

Author(s): Dandamayev, Muhammad A.
A version of this article is available in printVolume II, Fascicle 1, pp. 25-26 ANDIA, district to the south or east of lake Urmia which is often mentioned in close connection with Zikirtu in the Assyrian texts. The location of Andia is difficult to determine and depends on the location of Zikirtu. It is possible that Andia was a part of Mannea (see Levin, in  Iran 12, pp. 113-15). According to Diakonoff, it was situated on the lower part of the Qyzul-Üzen river valley.  Ca. 802 BC the Assyrian king Adadnirari III claimed sovereignty over it. Ca. 719 BC Andi…
Date: 2021-07-20

CARDUCHI

(270 words)

Author(s): Dandamayev, Muhammad A.
warlike tribes that in antiquity occupied the hilly country along the upper Tigris near the Assyrian and Median borders, in present-day western Kurdistan. A version of this article is available in printVolume IV, Fascicle 7, pp. 806 CARDUCHI (Latin form of Greek Kardoûkhoi), warlike tribes that in antiquity occupied the hilly country along the upper Tigris near the Assyrian and Median borders, in present-day western Kurdistan.The Carduchi were first mentioned in the early 4th century b.c. by Xenophon, who described them as living in villages and engaging in a…
Date: 2023-04-17

ACHAEMENES

(448 words)

Author(s): Dandamayev, Muhammad A.
(Greek Achaiménēs), Old Persian proper name Haxāmaniš, traditionally derived from haxā- “friend” and manah “thinking power.”A version of this article is available in printVolume I, Fascicle 4, pp. 414 ACHAEMENES (Greek Achaiménēs), Old Persian proper name Haxāmaniš, traditionally derived from haxā- “friend” and manah “thinking power” (but see Achaemenid Dynasty).i. Founder of Royal HouseThe eponymous founder of the Persian royal house, the Achaemenids. According to the Behistun inscription of Darius I (I.6 and A.8) and Herodotus (7.11; cf. also 3.…
Date: 2022-05-18

CITIZENSHIP

(4,307 words)

Author(s): Dandamayev, Muhammad A. | Shaki, Mansour | Yeganeh, Naser
A version of this article is available in printVolume V, Fascicle 6, pp. 631-635i. IN THE ACHAEMENID PERIODAll freeborn inhabitants of the Achaemenid empire were considered subjects of the Persian king. Nevertheless, in some constituent elements of the empire quite different forms of political organization prevailed (e.g., monarchic, oligarchic, aristocratic, democratic, and theocratic), and rulers enjoyed autonomy in internal affairs. Particularly in Babylonian cities, where self-rule was traditional, freeborn …
Date: 2021-05-21

FISCAL SYSTEM

(17,626 words)

Author(s): Dandamayev, Muhammad A. | Gyselen, Rika | Paul, Jürgen | Floor, Willem | Karshenas, Massoud | Et al.
i. Achaemenid Period. ii. Sasanian Period. iii. Islamic Period. iv. Safavid and Qajar Periods. v. Pahlavi Period. vi. Islamic Republic. A version of this article is available in printVolume IX, Fascicle 6, pp. 639-654 FISCAL SYSTEM in Persia.FISCAL SYSTEM i. ACHAEMENIDThere probably was no clear distinction between state and royal incomes in the Achaemenid empire. All state receipts were considered royal property, as was the income from the king’s estates (Dandamayev and Lukonin, p. 208).Taxes constituted the most substantial source of government income. Beginning fro…
Date: 2021-07-20

COURTS AND COURTIERS

(30,765 words)

Author(s): Dandamayev, Muhammad A. | Gignoux, Philippe | Bosworth, C. Edmund | Jackson, Peter | Gronke, Monika | Et al.
A version of this article is available in printVolume VI, Fascicle 4, pp. 356-388COURTS AND COURTIERS i. In the Median and Achaemenid periodsAvailable information on the Median and Achaemenid imperial courts is very limited and not entirely reliable. From Herodotus’ report (1.114) of the child Cyrus’ playing at being king it seems that the Median court included bodyguards, messengers, the “king’s eye” (a kind of secret agent; see below), and builders, for it is likely that the game was modeled on the existing court (…
Date: 2022-01-20