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Lilaea

(206 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Λίλαια; Lílaia, Ptol. 3,14,4; Λίλαιον; Lílaion, schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121). City in Phocis at the Cephisus sources (Hom. Il. 2,523; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 385; Str. 9,2,10; Paus. 10,35,5); named after the daughter of the river god Cephisus (Paus. 10,33,4); cf. the coins of L. [1. 17f.]; HN 339; 343). L. lies on the north-eastern slope of the Parnassus in a strategically favourable position on the traffic axis between the upper Cephisus valley and the Pleistus valley, c. 33 km from Delphi (Paus. 10,33,2). Finds come from the prehistoric to the Late Helladic a…

Phlygonium

(148 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Φλυγόνιον/ Phlygónion). Phocian town. Whether it was located in the north-west of the small plain of Tséresi is uncertain; the remains of the fortifications on the hill of Palaiokastron have been attributed to it. P. was among the cities destroyed in 346 BC at the instigation of Philippus [4] II (Paus. 10,3,2); the name P. also appears in the reports of the treasurers of Delphi after 324/3 (CID II 108 l. 10). In c. 140 BC (FdD III 2, 136), P. and Ambryssus, probably as part of a sympoliteía , together established the borders of their territory with that of Delphi. Daverio Rocchi…

Daphnus

(113 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Δαφνοῦς; Daphnoûs). Port of the Locri Epicnemidii (Str. 9,3,17; Plin. HN. 4,27), today known as Agios Konstantinos, situated on the coastal plain of Longus on the Euboean Gulf. From the time of the first Sacred War ( c. 590 BC) the entire coastal strip belonged to the Phocians (Scyl. 61; Str. 9,3,1), who secured an access to the Aegean Sea via D. After the third Sacred War D. was returned to Locris in 346 BC. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J. M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris, …

Daulis, Daulia

(256 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Δαυλίς , Δαυλία; Daulís, Daulía). City in eastern Phocis, c. 1 km south of modern Davleia. Its location on one of the foothills of the Parnassus made access to it naturally difficult and gave it strategic importance because both the narrow pass between the lower and upper Cephissus valley as well as the road from  Chaeronea to  Delphi could be controlled by it (Hell. Oxy. 13,5; Liv. 32,18,7). Etymologically, its name is derived from …

Parapotamii

(231 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Παραποτάμιοι; Parapotámioi). Originally a peasant settlement on the eastern bank of the Cephis(s)us [1] in Phocis, c. 7 km north of Chaeronea near the modern Belesi, later fortified to protect the mountain pass between Parnassus and Hadylium which connected the upper Cephissus Valley with the Copais region (Hom. Il. 2,522; Paus. 10,33,7; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 385). It is possible that Theopompus' (ibid.) proposed interpretation of the settlement as a colony ( katoikía) may have been linked to the settlement of the river valley by Minyans from Orchomen…

Calliarus

(112 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Καλλίαρος, τὰ Καλλίαρα; Kallíaros, tà Kallíara). Listed as one of the east Locrian towns in Homer's ship catalogue (Hom. Il. 2,531), deserted at the time of Strabo (Str. 9,4,5; Hsch. s.v. C.); it took its name from the surrounding plain, etymologically derived from the eponymous hero in Steph. Byz. s.v. C. (= Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 13). The localization of C. near Skala Atalandis, the finding place of pottery from the Early and Middle Helladic as well as the Mycenaean period, is uncertain. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography W. A. Oldfather, s.v. K. (1) and (2…

Molycrium

(185 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μολύκρειον/ Molýkreion). Corinthian colony in the foothills of Antirrhium, at a point dominating the strait between the Gulf of Patras and the Gulf of Corinth; its exact location is unknown. Sources: Thuc. 2,84,4; 3,102,2: Μ.; 2,86,2: Ethnikon Μολυκρικός; Pol. 5,94,7: Μολυκρία; Str. 8,2,3: Ethnikon Μολύκριος; 9,4,8; 10,2,21: Μολύκρεια; Plin. HN 4,6: Molycria; Ptol. 3,15,3: Μολυκρία; Ps.-Scyl. 35: Μολύκρεια; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μολυκρία. Occupied by Athens around 460 BC, conquered in 426 by the Spartans under Eurylochus (Thuc. 3,102,…

Korykion Antron

(162 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κωρύκιον ἄντρον; Kōrýkion ántron). A grotto (Quaternary period) with two chambers, named after Apollo's daughter Corycia (Paus. 10,6,3), on the northern side of Parnassus (on a height of 1,360 m) above Delphi (today's Sarandavli). The cavern, which Str. 9,3,1 and Paus. 10,32,2 regarded as most beautiful, was used by the neighbouring population as a place of refuge (in the Persian invasion of 480 BC, Hdt. 8,36,2), but primarily, as a cult site from as early as the end of the 8th cen…

Macynia

(144 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μακυνία, Μακύνεια; Makynía, Makýneia, ethnicon Μακυνιεύς; Makynieús). Coastal town in west Locris north-west of Antirrhium in the region of Mamakou, possibly on the Paleokastro, at a short distance from Taphiassus (modern Klokova; Str. 10,2,4; 6; 21; Plin. HN 4,6; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.); remains of the city walls (from about the 4th/3rd cents. BC), probably built after the incorporation of M. into the Aetolian League (in 338 BC; Aetolians). According to Plut. Quaest. Graec. 15, who cites…

Boundaries

(1,694 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(ὅρος/ hóros, μεθορία/ methoría; Latin finis, limes). [German version] I. Subjective and objective frontier perception The earliest evidence for the perception of the topographical dimensions of frontier zones predates the concept of the state. In Greece, differences in burial rites, cults of the dead and of heroes and the territorial distribution of crafted goods since the Iron Age point to actions motivated socially and subjectively, defining ethnically coherent communities or peoples as distinct from others…

Crisa

(523 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κρίσα). City in West Phocis (Κρίσα: Hom. Il. 2,520; Hecat. FGrH 1 F 115a; Pind. Isthm. 2,18; Soph. El. 180; Str. 9,3,3; Paus. 10,37,5; Plin. HN 4,7; Frontin. Str. 3,7,6; schol. Pind. Pyth. 1 hypoth.; Ptol. 3,14,4; Hsch. s.v. Κ.; Κρίσσα/η: Hom. H. Apollon 282; Eust. in Hom. Il. 526; Κίρσα: Alc. fr. 121 D.), toponym of the alluvial plain bounded in the SE by Cirphis and Parnassus (Κρισαῖον πεδίον: Hdt. 8,32; modern plain of Itea) on the bay of the Corinthian Gulf. C. lies on a rock…

Hyampolis

(397 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ὑάμπολις; Hyámpolis). City of eastern  Phocis, modern Bogdanou on the plateau of Kalapodi. In antiquity, it was the main access from northern Greece into the Cephisus valley (Hdt. 8,28; Paus. 10,1,11) through Thermopylae and the plains of Opus. The acropolis of H. is located on a hill where the passage leading to the plains of Exarchus joins the valley ( Abae, distance c. 2,5 km), crossed by the road to Orchomenus. The name is derived etymologically from Hyántōn pólis (Paus. 10,35,5; Str. 9,2,3; 9,3,15); mentioned in the catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,51…

Mychus

(57 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μυχός; Mychós). Easternmost harbour of Phocis (Str. 9,2,25; 3,13; the place name refers to the remoteness of the location) below the Helicon on the Gulf of Corinth, probably nearby modern Boulis in the Bay of Zálitzan (neolithic finds). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J.M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Eastern Phokis, 1986, 11, 91f.

Alpenus

(81 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ἀλπηνός, Ἀλπηνοί; Alpēnós, Alpēnoí).   Kome (Hdt. 7,176) or   polis (Hdt. 7,216) on the coastal plain of eastern  Locris, which is towered over by the rock formation Melampygos; at the eastern exit of  Thermopylae, where the Anopaia path branches off (Hdt. 7,215 f.; 229; cf. Aeschin. Leg. 132 f.). Badly damaged during the earthquake in 426 BC (FGrH 85 Demetrius of Callatis fr. 6). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography Müller, 292 f. Pritchett 4, 1982, 159-162 F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 202.

Tritea

(106 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τριτέα/ Tritéa; Τρίτεια/ Tríteia). Town in the east of western Locris (Locri [1]; Thuc. 3,101,2; Steph. Byz. s.v. Τρίτεια; SEG 25, 590), probably at modern Pendeoria near Galaxidi, with remains of a ring wall. A breed of hunting dog was named after T. (Hesych. s.v. Τριτῆς γενήεν). There are frequent mentions of inhabitants of T. in inscriptions at Delphi. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'ouest, vol. 1, 1952, 51 f., 145-149, 211; vol. 2, 1952, passim  J. Bousquet, C. Vatin, La Convention Chaleion-T., in: BCH 92, 1968, 29-36  G. …

Abae

(254 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles (Ἄβαι, Ἀβαί; Ábai, Abaí). Situated in eastern  Phocis on a rocky outcrop at the edge of the plain which borders the pass of  Hyampolis (about 2.5 km distance) near the modern Exarchos, on the road from Orchomenus to Opus (Paus. 10,35,1-5). Name derived from its Argive founder  Abas (Paus. loc. cit.). Seat of an oracle of Apollo (Hdt. 1,46; 8,27; 33; 133; Paus. loc. cit.; Str. 9,3,13; Diod. Sic. 16,58,3-6; Syll.3 552); fortress on the access to Phocis from  Locris Opuntia and  Boeotia (D…

Boagrius

(65 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Βοάγριος; Boágrios). River in eastern Locris (also called Manes), at times a raging torrent, discharges into the sea near Thronium (Str. 9,4,4; Plin. HN 4,27; Ptol. 3,15,10-11; cf. Hom. Il. 2,533; Lycoph. Alex. 1146). Its course was changed considerably by the earthquake of 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J. M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris, 1990, 167-179.

Cirphis

(137 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κίρφις; Kírphis). Mountain ridge south of Arachova in Boeotia, extending from the plain of Cirrha in the west to the Schiste in the east (Str. 9,3,3; FdD 3, 4, 280 c 24), where its highest peak rises (Xerovouni, 1503 m: cf. Pind. Hyporchemata d 5,4; b 3,11) and together with Mount Parnassus divides east and west Locris (Str. 9,3,1). It is uncertain if these references indicate the existence of an inhabited centre of the same name, whose location should be assumed near the modern v…

Stiris

(103 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Στῖρις/ Stîris, Στιρίς/ Stirís). City in Eastern Phocis on the route from Chaeronea over the Helicon [2] to Delphi (Paus. 10,35,8), remains at modern Paleochori (monastery of Agios Nikolaos). In the 3rd cent. BC border conflicts with Panopeus (SEG 42, 479), in the middle of the 2nd cent. BC sympoliteía with Medeon [1] (Syll.3 647). Inscriptions: IG IX 1,32-57. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography F. Schober, Phokis, 1924, 40f.  Philippson/Kirsten 1, 438  N. D. Papachatzis, Pausaniu Hellados Periegesis, vol. 5, 1981, 441f.  J. Fossey, The Ancient To…

Larymna

(188 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Λάρυμνα; Lárymna). Harbour town in eastern Locris, on the Gulf of Euboea [1]. Remains of fortifications near modern L., from Mycenaean, archaic and classical times as well as the Roman Imperial period, testify to the continuity of settlement and reconstruction after the destruction by Sulla (86 BC: Plut. Sulla 26,4). On the ancient road between L. and Bazaraki, near the church of Agios Nikolaos, are the ruins of an early Christian basilica. The ancient settlement was located on the hill of Bazaraki c. 2.5 k…
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