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(461 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ναρύκα/ Narýka, lit. also Νᾶρυξ/ Nâryx). City in Locris Epicnemidia (Locrians [1]) on the road from the Spercheus Valley via Thermopylae to Phocis, localized by inscriptions found in the church of Hagios Ioannes near Paleokastro at Rengini, approx. 8 km southeast of Mendenitsa ([1], cf. [2]; formerly believed to be at Atalante [3. 1138] or Kalapodi [4. 187]). Given its favourable setting in a fertile valley that was linked to the ocean via Thronion and located on the axis connecting n…

Amphicaea, Amphiclea

(153 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Ἀμφίκαια, Ἀμφίκλεια; Amphíkaia, Amphíkleia). In eastern  Phocis at the foot of Mount  Parnassus, on the southern edge of the central Cephissus valley; archaeological traces (late Mycenaean and 8th cent. BC), remains of a ring of wall and towers ( c. 5th-4th cent. BC). Destroyed during the Persian invasion of 480 BC (Hdt. 8,33) and again at the end of the Third Sacred War in 346 BC (Paus. 10,3,2); rebuilt as Amphikleia (called Dadi(on) from the Middle Ages, nowadays once more…

Daulis, Daulia

(256 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Δαυλίς , Δαυλία; Daulís, Daulía). City in eastern Phocis, c. 1 km south of modern Davleia. Its location on one of the foothills of the Parnassus made access to it naturally difficult and gave it strategic importance because both the narrow pass between the lower and upper Cephissus valley as well as the road from  Chaeronea to  Delphi could be controlled by it (Hell. Oxy. 13,5; Liv. 32,18,7). Etymologically, its name is derived from …


(231 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Παραποτάμιοι; Parapotámioi). Originally a peasant settlement on the eastern bank of the Cephis(s)us [1] in Phocis, c. 7 km north of Chaeronea near the modern Belesi, later fortified to protect the mountain pass between Parnassus and Hadylium which connected the upper Cephissus Valley with the Copais region (Hom. Il. 2,522; Paus. 10,33,7; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 385). It is possible that Theopompus' (ibid.) proposed interpretation of the settlement as a colony ( katoikía) may have been linked to the settlement of the river valley by Minyans from Orchomen…


(112 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Καλλίαρος, τὰ Καλλίαρα; Kallíaros, tà Kallíara). Listed as one of the east Locrian towns in Homer's ship catalogue (Hom. Il. 2,531), deserted at the time of Strabo (Str. 9,4,5; Hsch. s.v. C.); it took its name from the surrounding plain, etymologically derived from the eponymous hero in Steph. Byz. s.v. C. (= Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 13). The localization of C. near Skala Atalandis, the finding place of pottery from the Early and Middle Helladic as well as the Mycenaean period, is uncertain. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography W. A. Oldfather, s.v. K. (1) and (2…


(185 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μολύκρειον/ Molýkreion). Corinthian colony in the foothills of Antirrhium, at a point dominating the strait between the Gulf of Patras and the Gulf of Corinth; its exact location is unknown. Sources: Thuc. 2,84,4; 3,102,2: Μ.; 2,86,2: Ethnikon Μολυκρικός; Pol. 5,94,7: Μολυκρία; Str. 8,2,3: Ethnikon Μολύκριος; 9,4,8; 10,2,21: Μολύκρεια; Plin. HN 4,6: Molycria; Ptol. 3,15,3: Μολυκρία; Ps.-Scyl. 35: Μολύκρεια; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μολυκρία. Occupied by Athens around 460 BC, conquered in 426 by the Spartans under Eurylochus (Thuc. 3,102,…


(185 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes (Σκάρφεια/ Skárpheia). City in Locris Epicnemidia (Hom. Il. 2,532;  cf. Str. 9,4,4; Tab. Peut. 8,1; Geogr. Rav. 375,6), near modern Molo in a seismically active zone, seriously affected by tsunamis in 426 BC (Demetrius of Callatis FGrH 85 F 6; Thuc. 2,32) and AD 551 (Procop. Goth. 4,25,16-23). Initially in rivalry with Thronium for dominance in the region (cf. the conflict over the number of Delphic hieromnḗmones and border conflicts: FdD vol. 3, 38,3; 42,7), in Late Anti…


(117 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πλειστός/ Pleistós; literary form Πλεῖστος/ Pleîstos, Herodianus, De prosodia catholica 217). River, modern Xeropotami, and valley in western Phocis at the southern foot of Mount Parnassus, where Delphi was located. It flows into the Gulph of Corinth in the east of the plain of Itea. Material remains attest to settlement from Protohelladic II onwards; the greatest density of settlement is found in the Mycenaean Period. Cf. Paus. 10,8,8; 37,7; Str. 9,3,3; Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,711. Crisa Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. P., RE 21, …


(99 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πλυγόνιον/ Plygónion). Western Locrian locality in the west of Delphi, unknown to ancient literature. In Delphic inscriptions before 190 BC - the year P. was incorporated into Delphi - the Πλυγόνεις/ Plygóneis are frequently mentioned. It should be distinguished from a Phlygonium  ([1] as opposed to [2]) in Phocis. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography 1 E. Meyer, s.v. P., RE Suppl. 14, 385-387 2 E. Kirsten, s.v. Phlygonion, RE 20, 306-308. G. Daux, Delphes au IIe et au Ier siècle, 1936, 230-234, esp. 234  L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'Ouest, vol. 1, 1952…


(207 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Οἰνεών/ Oineṓn; also Οἰνόη/ Oinóe, regularly after the 5th cent. BC, or Οἰνόα/ Oinóa). Town in western Locris, east of Naupactus, near the modern Klima on the Paleochori hill (remains of city wall ring), with a harbour (modern Monastirakio). As the death of Hesiod (Hesiodus) was documented at the nearby sanctuary of Zeus Nemeios (Thuc. 3,96,1), O. can be identified with Oinoe (Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 215-254; Tzetz. Vita Hesiodi 97; 101; 104; cf. Plut. Mor. 162 e-f). It is uncertain whether the ethnikon Oinaîos (Οἰναῖος) or Oinoaîos (Οἰνοαῖος) in inscriptions f…


(268 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Λυκώρεια; Lykṓreia). Pólis (Paus. 10,6,2; Suda s.v. Λυκωρεύς) or kṓme (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,711; 4,1490; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.) in the summit region of the Parnassus. Various versions explaining the etymology and foundation: 1) the howling of the wolves (λύκων ὠρυγαῖς, Paus. l.c.) that led the residents to the peak of the Parnassus, which saved them from Deucalion's Flood ( Deucalion); 2) Lycorus, the son of Apollo and the nymph Corycia (Paus. l.c.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.)…


(288 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μυονία/ Myonía, Μυάνη/ Myánē, Μυών/ Myṓn). One of the four towns in Locris (Locri, Locris [1]) (Paus. 10,38,8; Plin. HN 4,8: Myania), about 30 stadia ( c. 5,7 km) north of Amphissa, from where it is possible only with difficulty to reach Locris (Thuc. 3,101,2; Steph. Byz. see Μ., here also Μυών; Herodian. 3,1,22; 3,1,297), exact location uncertain; there is discussion about Hagia Efthymia [1. 79], Seghditsa (present-day Pavliani) on the eastern slope of Ghiona [2. 380], Topolia (present-day Elaion) with r…


(397 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ὑάμπολις; Hyámpolis). City of eastern  Phocis, modern Bogdanou on the plateau of Kalapodi. In antiquity, it was the main access from northern Greece into the Cephisus valley (Hdt. 8,28; Paus. 10,1,11) through Thermopylae and the plains of Opus. The acropolis of H. is located on a hill where the passage leading to the plains of Exarchus joins the valley ( Abae, distance c. 2,5 km), crossed by the road to Orchomenus. The name is derived etymologically from Hyántōn pólis (Paus. 10,35,5; Str. 9,2,3; 9,3,15); mentioned in the catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,51…


(57 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μυχός; Mychós). Easternmost harbour of Phocis (Str. 9,2,25; 3,13; the place name refers to the remoteness of the location) below the Helicon on the Gulf of Corinth, probably nearby modern Boulis in the Bay of Zálitzan (neolithic finds). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J.M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Eastern Phokis, 1986, 11, 91f.


(81 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ἀλπηνός, Ἀλπηνοί; Alpēnós, Alpēnoí).   Kome (Hdt. 7,176) or   polis (Hdt. 7,216) on the coastal plain of eastern  Locris, which is towered over by the rock formation Melampygos; at the eastern exit of  Thermopylae, where the Anopaia path branches off (Hdt. 7,215 f.; 229; cf. Aeschin. Leg. 132 f.). Badly damaged during the earthquake in 426 BC (FGrH 85 Demetrius of Callatis fr. 6). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography Müller, 292 f. Pritchett 4, 1982, 159-162 F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 202.


(106 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τριτέα/ Tritéa; Τρίτεια/ Tríteia). Town in the east of western Locris (Locri [1]; Thuc. 3,101,2; Steph. Byz. s.v. Τρίτεια; SEG 25, 590), probably at modern Pendeoria near Galaxidi, with remains of a ring wall. A breed of hunting dog was named after T. (Hesych. s.v. Τριτῆς γενήεν). There are frequent mentions of inhabitants of T. in inscriptions at Delphi. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'ouest, vol. 1, 1952, 51 f., 145-149, 211; vol. 2, 1952, passim  J. Bousquet, C. Vatin, La Convention Chaleion-T., in: BCH 92, 1968, 29-36  G. …


(254 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles (Ἄβαι, Ἀβαί; Ábai, Abaí). Situated in eastern  Phocis on a rocky outcrop at the edge of the plain which borders the pass of  Hyampolis (about 2.5 km distance) near the modern Exarchos, on the road from Orchomenus to Opus (Paus. 10,35,1-5). Name derived from its Argive founder  Abas (Paus. loc. cit.). Seat of an oracle of Apollo (Hdt. 1,46; 8,27; 33; 133; Paus. loc. cit.; Str. 9,3,13; Diod. Sic. 16,58,3-6; Syll.3 552); fortress on the access to Phocis from  Locris Opuntia and  Boeotia (D…


(65 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Βοάγριος; Boágrios). River in eastern Locris (also called Manes), at times a raging torrent, discharges into the sea near Thronium (Str. 9,4,4; Plin. HN 4,27; Ptol. 3,15,10-11; cf. Hom. Il. 2,533; Lycoph. Alex. 1146). Its course was changed considerably by the earthquake of 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J. M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris, 1990, 167-179.


(137 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κίρφις; Kírphis). Mountain ridge south of Arachova in Boeotia, extending from the plain of Cirrha in the west to the Schiste in the east (Str. 9,3,3; FdD 3, 4, 280 c 24), where its highest peak rises (Xerovouni, 1503 m: cf. Pind. Hyporchemata d 5,4; b 3,11) and together with Mount Parnassus divides east and west Locris (Str. 9,3,1). It is uncertain if these references indicate the existence of an inhabited centre of the same name, whose location should be assumed near the modern v…


(230 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Θρόνιον; Thrónion). City in eastern Locris (Locri [1]) on the northeastern slopes of Mount Cnemis at the edge of the Boagrius plain, which opens on to the Gulf of Malia, on the coast road to Thermopylae (Aeschin. Or. 2,132) near modern Palaiokastro (traces of Hellenistic and Roman settlements, surviving fortifications). T. was home to the family of Ajax [2] (Hom. Il. 2,533; Eur. Iph. A. 262 ff.). Severely affected by the earthquake of 426 BC (Demetrius of Callatis FGrH 85 F 6), T.…
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