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Lilaea

(206 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Λίλαια; Lílaia, Ptol. 3,14,4; Λίλαιον; Lílaion, schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121). City in Phocis at the Cephisus sources (Hom. Il. 2,523; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 385; Str. 9,2,10; Paus. 10,35,5); named after the daughter of the river god Cephisus (Paus. 10,33,4); cf. the coins of L. [1. 17f.]; HN 339; 343). L. lies on the north-eastern slope of the Parnassus in a strategically favourable position on the traffic axis between the upper Cephisus valley and the Pleistus valley, c. 33 km from Delphi (Paus. 10,33,2). Finds come from the prehistoric to the Late Helladic a…

Anticyra

(374 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Ἀντίκυρα; Antíkyra). [German version] [1] Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus, in 480 BC still the location of its mouth into the sea (Hdt. 7,198), near the modern village of Komma. Originally, A. was part of the  Achaean Phthiotis, then fell to the  Malians in the Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 BC), and from about 280 BC, it was a member of the  Oeteaen league.  Ephialtes, who in 480 BC had betrayed to the Persians the way around The…

Delphi

(3,801 words)

Author(s): Maaß, Michael (Karlsruhe) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Dark Ages | Aetolians, Aetolia | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Celts | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Athletes | Education / Culture (Δελφοί; Delphoí), Delphi. I. Topography and Archaeology [German version] A. Site Delphi, with its sanctuary of Apollo, lies at an altitude of 533 to 600 m. on the south slope of Mt. Parnassus (main summit 2,457 m.), by the cleft of the Castalia Gorge. The Phaedriads (around …

Medeon

(495 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Phocian city in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra (Μεδεών/ Medeṓn; ethnicon Μεδεώνιος). Phocian town in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra [2] (Str. 9,2,26; Paus. 10,36,6; Hdt. 1,38,21; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.), localized in the fortified centre of which the considerable remains can be found on the hill-top of the modern Hagioi Theodoroi (the acropolis of M.) and in the surrounding area. These remains include a section of the surrounding wall, with three towers; outside the wall, on…

Naupactus

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Achaeans, Achaea | Peloponnesian War (Ναύπακτος/ Naúpaktos, Latin Naupactus). [German version] I. Location Coastal town in West Locris (Locrians [1]), about 9 km from the strait of Rhion and Antirrhion, protected by a promontory of the Rhigani mountains (cf. Scyl. 35; Str. 9,4,7; 10,2,3; Plin. HN 4,6; Ptol. 3,14). The plains to the east and west of N. were very fertile but exhausted by olive and grain cultivation. The chṓra of Naupactus ( Naupaktía) included most of the coastal plain (Pol. 5,103,4) and ascended …

Amphissa

(444 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Ἄμφισσα; Ámphissa). Largest town of western  Locris (Paus. 10,38,4; Str. 9,3,4. 4,7 f.; from the Middle Ages called Salona, nowadays once again A.), located in the north of the fertile plain of  Crisa (Str. loc. cit.) c. 15 km north-west of  Delphi, where the road from western Locris joined that from Doris and Delphi. Both the desire of this wealthy agrarian town to expand into the Crisaean plain, and its key strategic position in central Greece are possible reasons for it…

Drymus

(271 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Δρυμός; Drymós). [German version] [1] City at the foot of the Callidromon (Δρυμαία; Drymaía). City situated at the foot of the Callidromon, in the northern foothills of the central Cephissus valley, c. 1.5 km south-east of Drymea (in antiquity Nauboleís, Paus. 10,33,12; cf. Hom. Il. 2,518); set ablaze by the Persians (480 BC, Hdt. 8,33), destroyed by Philip II (346 BC Paus. 10,3,2) and conquered by Philip V (207 BC, Liv. 28,7,13), still mentioned in late antiquity (Hierocles, Synekdemos 643; Not. Episc. 737-762). Well-preserved wal…

Opus

(329 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ὀποῦς/ Opoûs). [German version] [1] Chief town of eastern Locris This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Boeotia, Boeotians Chief town of eastern Locris (Itin. Anton. 327,4), after which the surrounding countryside, a bay (modern Kolpos Atalantis) of the Euboean Sea and the Locri [1] who lived there were named. O. was either near modern Kyparissi (traces of an ancient settlement) or at modern Atalanti (numerous inscriptional finds: Ὀπούντιοι/ Opoúntioi, IG IX 1, 268-275; 278; δῆμος Ὀπουντίων/ dêmos opountíōn, IG IX 1, 282). The port of O. was C…

Cleonae

(339 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Κλεωναί; Kleōnaí). [German version] [1] City in the mountainous area south-west of  Corinth This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes City in the mountainous area south-west of  Corinth at the intersection of the roads from Corinth south towards the Peloponnese. City wall and minimal remains of buildings on a hill 4 km north-west of Hagios Vasilios. In the south outside C. is a small Doric temple, probably of Hercules (Diod. Sic. 4,33.3). C. is already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,570. Part of the …

Cyparissus

(325 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Κυπάρισσος; Kypárissos). [German version] [1] Of Ceos of Ceos, beloved of  Apollo. Pained because he had accidentally killed his own favourite stag, C. begged to be allowed to mourn for ever and was turned into a cypress (Ov. Met. 10,106-142). Even though Ovid provides the earliest documentary evidence, the story itself is believed to be much older [1. 52]. In Servius' version, C. is a son of  Telephus, also hailing from Crete, also beloved of  Zephyrus or  Silvanus, but the stag was killed by Silvanu…

Elatea

(685 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἐλάτεια; Eláteia). [German version] [1] Phocian town This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture In antiquity together with  Delphi (Str. 9,3,2) the largest (Paus. 10,34,1-2; Str. 9,2,19; Harpocr., Suda s.v. E.) and most famous Phocian town. Located in the farthest north of the Cephissus valley near modern Elatia (Leftà), E. dominated the road that led south from Thessaly and Locris through the passes of Thermopylae and Hyampolis. This location made E. a lively c…

Physcus

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φύσκος/ Phýskos). [German version] [1] Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes (Str. 14,2,4; 29; 5,22; Ptol. 5,2,11: Φοῦσκα/ Phoûska; Stadiasmus maris magni 272), deme of the polis of Lindus in Rhodes [1. 792; 2. no. 51]. Ancient remains of a Classical and Hellenistic fortress are on Asar Tepe, 2 km to the northwest of Marmaris, above an excellent natural harbour on the bay. Inscriptions: [1. 2-5; 2. no. 1-7, 57]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P.M. Fraser, G.E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954 2 C. Blinkenberg, K.F. Kinch, Lindos, …

Charadra

(331 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(χαράδρα; charádra). Generic Greek term for non-perennial streams or rivers, or deeply eroded valleys and gorges (Italian torrente, Modern Greek rhevma) [1]. Attic inscriptions of the  Poletai, especially mining leases, mention many charadrai [2]. [German version] [1] Major river in northern Attica Major river in northern Attica, springing from the north-eastern foot of the Parnes and flowing into the plain of Marathon; also called the Marathon stream or the Oenoe [3; 4]. Proverbial in referring to troubles brought upon oneself, as a la…

Locri, Locris

(4,613 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Musti, Domenico (Rome) | Del Monaco, Lavinio (Rome)
(Λοκροί, Λοκρίς; Lokroí, Lokrís). [1] Region in Greece [German version] A. Geography Locris comprised two regions in central Greece, separated from one another by two mountain ranges ( Parnassus, Callidromus and the valley of the Cephis(s)us): 1) Western L. with the plain south of the Gavia Pass from Amphissa to the Gulf of Corinth, bordered by the slopes of Parnassus and Corax; it extended to the west in a narrow coastal strip across the promontory Antirrhium and bordered on Aetolia, Doris, Phocis, Delphi and the hierà chṓra of the Apollo sanctuary. 2) Eastern L. comprised the s…

Neon

(631 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Νέων; Néōn). [German version] [1] Military official under Chirisophus Lacedaemonian from the perioeci town of Asine [3], subordinate commander (ὑποστράτηγος/ hypostrátēgos) of Chirisophus [1] in the campaign of the younger Cyrus [3] against Artaxerxes [2]. After Chirisiphorus' death, N. commanded the Lacedaemonian contingent. After Xenophon had relinquished command at Byzantium, N. hoped for supreme command, and opposed the decision to place the mercenary army in the service of the Odrysian King Seuthes (Xen. An. 6,4,23f.; 7,2,1-2; 7,3,7; [1. 350]). Schmitz, Winfried (Bi…

Nicaea

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια; Níkaia). [German version] [1] Naiad Naiad, daughter of the Phrygian river god Sangarius and the goddess Cybele. As a huntress, N. spurns love and remains a virgin. In Memnon of Heracleia, she does not yield to Dionysus and so he resorts to a ruse and turns into wine the spring from which N. is accustomed to drinking. She becomes drunk and falls asleep. Dionysus overpowers her in her sleep and fathers with her 'satyrs and others' (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). In Nonnus, Dion. 15,169-16,405, the…
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