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Asseverative Particle

(1,801 words)

Author(s): David Testen
The proclitic particle la- was used in early literary Arabic as a marker of the category known to Jakobsonian structuralism as ‘status’, which has been defined as “the subjective evaluation of the narrated event by the speaker” (Aronson 1991:114). The principal role of la- seems to have been to underscore the speaker's commitment to the veracity of his or her utterance, and it was thus often encountered in oaths (e.g. la-'in kašafta ʿannā r-rijza la-nu'minanna lakala-if you remove the penalty from us, la-we shall believe in you’, Q 7/134), in evaluations or assessments (e.g. wa-ma'wāhum…
Date: 2018-04-01

Enclisis

(757 words)

Author(s): David Testen
Clitic elements (clitics) are those which lack an inherent stress and are therefore found attached to an adjacent word. The value of the term ‘enclitic’ varies, some authors employing it to refer specifically to an element which follows the element with which it is accentually linked (and hence as a synonym of what is otherwise known as a ‘postclitic’), while others use ‘enclitic’ more broadly to refer to any accentually dependent element, regardless of the linear relation to its accentual host – in the second sense, ‘enclitic’ may refer to either proclitics or postclitics. Since Arabic …
Date: 2018-04-01