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Pīs̲h̲wā

(1,215 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the title given to one of the ministers of the Bahmanī sulṭāns of the Deccan; the chief minister of S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī; the head of the Marāṭhā confederacy. (Persian “leader”; Pahl. pēs̲h̲ōpay; Arm. pēs̲h̲opay. For older forms see Hübschmann, Armenische Grammatik, i. 230). S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī, the founder of Marāṭhā political power in the Dakhan, was assisted by a council of ministers known as the As̲h̲ta Pradhan, one of whom was the Pīs̲h̲wā or Muk̲h̲ya Pradhan. The office of Pīs̲h̲wā was not hereditary and the nature of S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī’s autocratic…

Nāgpur

(913 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a city, taḥṣīl, district, and division of the Central Provinces of British India. The modern Central Provinces and Berār, which formed part of the eighteenth century Bhonsla kingdom of Nāgpur, lie between 17° 47′ and 24° 27′ N. and 75° 37′ and 84° 24′ E., with an area of 113,285 square miles, and a total population of 17,951,147. Nāgpur division contains a population of 3,595,578; Nāgpur district 933,168; and the city 215,003 (1931 Census Report). The history of this area, which roughly corresponds to Gondwāna, has been profoundly influenced by the long range of the S…

Pand̲j̲dih

(881 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, (Pend̲j̲deh) a village in the Turkoman republic of the U. S. S. R., situated to the east of the Kus̲h̲k river near its junction with the Murg̲h̲āb at Pul-i Kis̲h̲ti. The fact that the inhabitants of this area, the Sarik Turkomans, were divided into five sections, the Soktis, Harzagis, Ḵh̲urāsānlis, Bairač, and the ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, has been put forward as a possible explanation of the origin of the name Pend̲j̲deh, but it carries no weight as the Sariks were only nineteenth century immigrants whereas the name was in use in the fifteenth century. This obscure oasis owes a somewhat melancholy…

Rangoon

(956 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a city in the Pegu division of Burma lying on both sides of the Hlaing river at its point of junction with the Pegu river and the Pazundaung creek, twenty-one miles from the sea. Legend, not entirely undocumented, relates that the great pagoda at Rangoon (Mon, Kyaik Lagung; Burmese, Shwe Dagon) was founded during the life-time of the Buddha and was repaired by the emperor Açoka ( J. B. R. S., xxiv. 4 and 20). History proper begins with the establishment of Pegu as the capital of a Mon kingdom in 1369. ¶ A convenient port was required for this kingdom. Bassein, which had been the chief…

Riḍīya

(451 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(1236-1240 a. d.), the only woman to succeed to the throne of Dihlī during the period of Muslim rule, and, with the exception of S̲h̲ad̲j̲ar al-Durr [q. v.] of Egypt, the only female sovereign in the history of Islām. After the death of his eldest son, Īltutmis̲h̲ [q. v.], despite the protests of his advisers, nominated his daughter Riḍīya as his successor on the grounds of her fitness to rule. On the death of Īltutmis̲h̲) the courtiers, disregarding the late king’s wishes, raised one of his sons, Rukn al-Dīn Fīrūz, to the throne. Th…

Niẓām S̲h̲āh

(618 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, title assumed in 895 (1490) by Malik Aḥmad Baḥrī, founder of the Niẓām S̲h̲āhī state of Aḥmadnagar [q. v.], one of the five independent sulṭānates which arose out of the ruins of the Bahmanī kingdom of the Dakhan towards the end of the fifteenth century. Fora chronological list and genealogical table of these kings of Aḥmadnagar see Cambridge History of India, iii. 704—705; also Zambaur, Manuel, p. 298—299. The second ruler, Burhān Niẓām S̲h̲āh I (914— 960 = 1509—1553), adopted, in 1537, the S̲h̲īʿa form of Islām which, except for a brief period under Ismāʿīl w…

Pand̲j̲āb

(1,791 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the land of the five rivers, is a province of modern India which, together with the North-West Frontier Province and Kas̲h̲mīr [q. v.], occupies the extreme north-western corner of the Indian Empire, and, with the exception of ¶ the recently-constituted Delhi province, comprises all of British India north of Sind and Rād̲j̲pūtāna and west of the river Ḏj̲amna. Geographically therefore it includes more than its name implies, for, in addition to the country watered by the Ḏj̲helum, Čināb, Rāwī, Beās, and Satled̲j̲, it embraces the t…

Rampur

(1,141 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, an Indian state in Rohilk̲h̲and under the political supervision of the government of the United Provinces. It is bounded on the north by the district of Nainī Tāl; on the east by Bareilly; on the south by the Bisauli taḥṣīl of Budāūn; and on the west by the district of Morādābād. The early history of Rāmpur is that of the growth of Rohilla power in Rohilk̲h̲and. After the establishment of Muslim rule. in India large ¶ bodies of Afg̲h̲āns or Paṭhāns settled down in the country. So powerful did they become that they were twice able to establish their rule in northern In…

Pes̲h̲āwar

(1,130 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a district, taḥṣīl, and city in the North-West Frontier Province of British India. The district which lies between 71° 25′ and 72° 47′ E. and 33° 40′ and 34° 31′ N. has an area of 2,637 square miles and a population of 947,321 of whom 92 per cent are Muslims (1931 Census Report). It is bounded on the east by the river Indus, which separates it from the Pand̲j̲āb and Hazāra, and on the south-east by the Nīlāb G̲h̲as̲h̲a range which shuts it off from the district of Kōhāt. Elsewhere it is bounded b…

Mohmand

(755 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a Paṭhān tribe on the north-west frontier of India. The territories inhabited by the Mohmands stretch from the north-west of the Pes̲h̲āwar district across the Durand boundary into Afg̲h̲ānistān. Towards the end of the xvth century according to local tradition, two large branches of Paṭhān tribes, the Khakhai and the G̲h̲orīa Ḵh̲ēl, migrated from their homes in Afg̲h̲ānistān to the northwest frontier of India. By the opening years of the xvith century the Mohmands, who were a tribe of the G̲h̲orīa Ḵh̲ēl, had reached the Khyber area. They were never reall…

Quetta

(658 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(Pas̲h̲tu: Kwaṭṭa), a taḥṣīl and town in the Quetta-Pis̲h̲īn district of British Balūčistān [q. v.]. The district, which contains the taḥṣīls of Quetta and Pis̲h̲īn and the administrative sub-division of Čaman, has an area of 4,806 square miles and a population of 147,541, of whom 107,945 are Muslims. Nearly all these Muslims are Pas̲h̲tu speaking Paṭhāns, only a very small minority speaking Brahūī and Balūčī. The district, which is very mountainous, is bounded on the north-west by Afg̲h̲ān territory, on the east b…

Mullagorī

(223 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a tribe on the north-west frontier of India. They inhabit the hilly country around Tārtāra and ¶ Kambela to the north of the Ḵh̲yber Pass. Their territories are bounded on the north by the Kābul river; on the west by the S̲h̲ilmānī country; on the south by the settlements of the Kuki Ḵh̲ēl Afrīdīs; and on the east by the Pes̲h̲āwar district. The tribe is divided into three clans: the Aḥmad Ḵh̲ēl, Ismāʿīl, and the Dawlat Ḵh̲ēl. Like the Ṣāfīs and the S̲h̲ilmānīs they are vassal clans of the Mohmands. N…

Pargana

(617 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the Indian name for an aggregate of villages. The first reference to this term in the chronicles of the Sultanate of Delhi appears to be in the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Fīrūz S̲h̲āhī of S̲h̲ams-i Sirād̲j̲ ʿAfīf ( Bibliotheca Indica, 1891, p. 99), for it is not used by Ḥasan al-Niẓāmī in ¶ his Tād̲j̲ al-Maʾāsir or by Minhād̲j̲ al-Dīn in his Ṭabaḳāt-i Nāṣirī. Although it first came into prominence in the xivth century partially superseding the term ḳaṣba, it is, in all probability, based on still more ancient divisions in existence before the Muslim conquest. The exact date of its c…

Mastūd̲j̲

(282 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a village, fort, and district in the upper Yārkhūn valley at present included in the Dīr, Swāt and Čitrāl Political Agency of the North-West Frontier Province of India. It apparently formed part of the ancient territory of Śyāmāka (M. Sylvain Levi, in J. A., xi., vol. v., p. 76; and Lüders, Weitere Beiträge zur Geschichte und Geographie von Ostturkestan, 1930, p. 29 sqq.). Stein identifies Mastūd̲j̲ with the territory of Čü-wei or S̲h̲ang-mi which was visited ¶ by the Chinese pilgrim Wu-K’ung in the viiith century a. d. ( Ancient khotan, i., foot note on p. 15—16; Serindia, i. 18). An insc…

Rād̲j̲pūts

(1,638 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, inhabitants of India, who claim to be the modern representatives of the Ks̲h̲atriyas of ancient tradition. (From the Sanskrit rād̲j̲aputra “a king’s son”. For the connection between Rād̲j̲anya and Ks̲h̲atriya see Macdonell and Keith, Vedic Index, i., s. v. Kṣatriya). The term Rād̲j̲pūt has no racial significance. It simply denotes a tribe, clan, or warlike class, the members of which claim aristocratic rank, a claim generally reinforced by Brahman recognition. The origin of the Rād̲j̲pūts is a problem which bristles with difficulties. The theory which at present …

Bāonī

(146 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, formerly a petty Muslim state in the Bundelkhand Agency of Central India, is now administered as part of Madhya Pradesh (area: 122 square miles; population: 25, 256, of which only 12% are Muslims). Its rulers were descended from ʿImād al-Mulk G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn, the grandson of Āṣaf D̲j̲āh, the Niẓām of Ḥaydarābād. About 1784 G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn came to terms with the Marāthās who granted him a d̲j̲āgīr of 52 villages, the name Bāonī being derived from bāwan (fifty-two). This grant was later recognised by the British. Because of his loyalty during the 1857 revolt, the nawāb was granted a sanad

Nūr D̲j̲ahān

(432 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
name given to Mihr al-Nisāʾ the famous queen of D̲j̲ahāngīr, the Mug̲h̲al Emperor. She was born at Ḳandahār in 985/1577 when her father, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ Beg, was migrating from Persia to Hindustan ( Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ , i, 129). In the reign of Akbar she was married to ʿAlī Ḳulī Beg, a Persian who had rendered distinguished military service to the Emperor and who, because of his bravery, was known as S̲h̲īr Afgan. The assassination of her first husband will always remain a matter of controversy, ¶ some regarding it as a repetition of the story of David and Uriah, others holding t…

Arg̲h̲ūn

(812 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, name of a Mongol dynasty claiming descent from Hulāgū. (Raverty, Notes on Afghanistan , 580, refuses to accept this claim). The Arg̲h̲ūns rose to prominence towards the end of the 15th century when Sulṭān Ḥusayn Bāyḳarā of Harāt appointed Ḏh̲ū ’l-Nūn Beg Arg̲h̲ūn governor of Ḳandahār. He soon began to assume an independent attitude and resisted all attempts of the ruler of Harāt to coerce him. As early as 884/1479 he occupied the highlands of Pis̲h̲īn, S̲h̲āl and Mustang which now form part of Balūčistān. In 890/1…

Nāgpur

(951 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a city, district and division of the state of Maharashtra in the Indian Union, formerly in the Central Provinces of British India; the city lies on the Nāg river in lat. 21° 10’ N. and long. 79° 12’ E. The history of this area, which roughly corresponds to Gondwāna, has been profoundly influenced by the long range of the Sātpura hills through which the Burhānpur-Asīrgaŕh gap provided the chief route from Hindustan to the Dakhan. When the Muslim invaders first came into contact with Gondwāna, it contained four independent Go…

Ayyūb K̲h̲ān

(296 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, quatrième fils de S̲h̲ir ʿAlī, amīr d’Afg̲h̲ānistān, et frère de Yaʿḳūb Ḵh̲ān. Comme tous les souverains d’Afg̲h̲ānistān, S̲h̲īr ʿAlī éprouva des difficultés avec ses fils. Quand, en 1873, il désigna son fils favori ʿAbd Allāh Ḏj̲ān comme héritier présomptif, Ayyūb Ḵh̲ān s’enfuit en Perse. En 1879, lorsque Yaʿḳūb Ḵh̲ān succéda à S̲h̲īr ʿAlī comme amīr, Ayyūb Ḵh̲ān revint en Afg̲h̲ānistān et fut nommé gouverneur de Herāt. Vers la fin de la ¶ seconde guerre afghane (1878-80), le gouvernement de Lord Lytton choisit un prince Sadōzai, du nom de S̲h̲īr ʿAlī, comme wālī de Ḳandahār. Il fut…
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