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(512 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(Odra-deça), a part of the modern Indian province of Bihar and Orissa, has an area of 13,706 square miles and a population of 5,306,142, of which only 124,463 profess the Muslim faith. For administrative purposes it is divided into the five districts of Cuttack, Balasore, Purl, Angul and Sambalpur. There are in addition twenty-four native states, the Orissa feudatory states, with a population of 4,465,385, the Muḥammadans numbering only 17,100 (Census of India, 1931). Modern Orissa, which embraces the deltas of the Mahānadī and neighbouring rivers, extends from the Ba…


(288 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a Muslim state in India now included in the Western India States Agency and situated to the south-west of Pālanpūr. The rulers of Rādhanpūr trace their descent from a Muslim adventurer who came to India from Iṣpahān about the middle of the xviith century. His descendants became fawd̲j̲dārs and farmers of revenue in the Mug̲h̲al province of Gud̲j̲arāt [q. v.]. Early in the xviiith century Ḏj̲awān Mard Ḵh̲ān Bābī, the head of the family at that time, received a grant of Rād̲h̲anpūr and other districts ( Mīrʾāt-i Aḥmadī, Ethé, N°. 3599, fol. 742). With the decline of the Mug̲h̲al em…


(369 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a Muslim state in India now included in the Western India States Agency. The territory incorporated in this agency includes the area formerly known as Kāthiāwār together with the Cutch and Pālanpūr agencies. Its creation in October 1924, marked the end of the political control of the Government of Bombay and the beginning of direct relations with the Government of India. The old Pālanpūr Agency with its headquarters at the town of Pālanpūr was a group of states in Gud̲j̲arāt [q. v.] lying betw…


(466 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a town and taḥṣīl in the Karnāl district of the Pand̲j̲āb [q. v.]. On three occasions has the fate of Hindustān been decided on the plain of Pānīpat: in 1526, when Bābur [q. v.], the Barlās Turk, defeated Ibrāhīm Lodī; in 1556, when Akbar [q. v.] crushed the forces of Hēmū; and lastly, in 1761, when the Marāṭhās where defeated by Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī [q. v.]. The geographical factor combined with internal decay and a weak system of frontier defence has been chiefly responsible for this. From the s…


(309 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a district in the Belgaum division of the Indian State of Mysore. It has an area of 5,305 square miles and a population of 1,575,386 of whom 15% are Muslims (1951 Census). Until the 7th/13th century it remained free from the Muslim invader. In the following century it formed part of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ’s extensive empire. After the decline of Tug̲h̲luḳ power its geographical position, especially its proximity to the Rāyčūr Dōʾāb, made it a bone of contention between the Bahmanī kingdom of th…

Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī

(1,804 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the first of the Sadōzay rulers of Afg̲h̲ānistān and founder of the Durrānī empire, belonged to the Sadōzay section of the Popalzay clan of the Abdālī [ q.v.] tribe of Afg̲h̲āns. In the early 18th century the Abdālīs were to be found chiefly around Harāt. Under their leader Zamān Ḵh̲ān, the father of Aḥmad Ḵh̲ān, they resisted Persian attempts to take Harāt until, in 1728, they were forced to submit to Nādir S̲h̲āh. ¶ Some time later they rebelled under Ḏh̲u’l-Fiḳār Ḵh̲ān, the brother of Aḥmad Ḵh̲ān, but were once more defeated by the Persian r…


(129 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, town in the Indian State of Bombay, 56 m. north of Poona. Its proximity to the Nānā Pass made it an important trade centre linking the Deccan with the west coast. The fort of D̲j̲unnar was built by Malik al-Tud̲j̲d̲j̲ār in 840/1436. The district around D̲j̲unnar was one of the ṭarafs or provinces of the Bahmanī kingdom of the Deccan during the administration of Maḥmūd Gāwān [ q.v.]. It later formed part of the Sultanate of Aḥmadnagar. In 1067/1657 the town was plundered by S̲h̲iwad̲j̲ī, the Marāt́hā leader, who was born in the neighbouring hill-fort of S̲h̲iwn…


(168 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(bijnor), a town and district in the Rohilk̲h̲and division of the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh. The district has an area of 1,867 square miles with a population of 984,196, of which 36% are Muslims. The town has a population of 30,646 (1951 Census). Little is known of the district’s early history. In 1399 it was ravaged by Tīmūr. Under Akbar it formed part of the sarkār of Sambhal in the sūba of Dihlī. During the decline of Mug̲h̲al power it was overrun by Rohillas under ʿAlī Muḥammad. It contains the town of Nad̲j̲ibābād founded about 1750 by Nad̲j̲ib al-Dawla who became wāzīr


(1,680 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a large and powerful Paṭhān tribe, with an estimated fighting strength of 50,000, on the northwest frontier of Pākistān. The territories inhabited by the Afrīdīs stretch from the eastern spurs of the Safīd Kūh through the northern half of Tirāh and the Khyber (Ḵh̲aybar) [ q.v.] pass to the west and south of the Pes̲h̲āwar district. On the east they are bounded by the settled districts of Pākistān; on the north by the territories of the Mohmunds; on the west by the S̲h̲inwārīs; and on the south by the Ōrakzays and Bangas̲h̲ tribes…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān K̲h̲ān

(915 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(c. 1844-1901), Amīr of Afg̲h̲ānistān, was the son of Afḍal Ḵh̲ān, the eldest surviving son of Dōst Muḥammad Ḵh̲ān, the founder of the Barakzay dynasty in Afg̲h̲ānistān. In 1853 he proceeded to Afg̲h̲ān Turkistān where his father was serving as governor of Balk̲h̲. Despite his youth he took part in a series of operations which extended Dōst Muḥammad’s power over Katag̲h̲ān, Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, and Derwāz. Before his death in 1863 Dōst Muḥammad had nominated a younger son, S̲h̲īr ʿAlī, as his success…


(1,676 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, inhabitants of India, who claim to be the modern representatives of the Ks̲h̲atriyas of ancient tradition. (From the Sanskrit rād̲j̲aputra “a king’s son”. For the connection between Rād̲j̲anya and Ks̲h̲atriya see Macdonell and Keith, Vedic index, i, s.v. Kṣatriya) The term Rād̲j̲pūt has no racial significance. It simply denotes a tribe, clan, or warlike class, the members of which claim aristocratic rank, a claim generally reinforced by Brahman recognition. The origin of the Rād̲j̲pūts is a problem which bristles with difficulties. The theory which was held earl…


(1,592 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, abu ’l-fatḥ ḏj̲alāl al-dīn muḥammad (15 Oct. 1542-16 Oct. 1605), the greatest of the Mug̲h̲al emperors of India, was born at Umarkot in Sind while his father Humāyūn, who had been ousted by the Afg̲h̲ān usurper S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh Sūr, was escaping to Persia. A grandson of Bābur, he was both a Tīmūrid Turk and a Čag̲h̲atāy Mongol. His mother, Ḥamīda Bānū, was a Persian. After thirteen years of exile Humāyūn, because of the decline of Sūr power, decided to attempt the reconquest of H…


(164 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a town on the south bank of the Ganges in the S̲h̲āhābād district of the Patna division of the Indian State of Bihār. Population: 18,087. (1951 Census). It seems to have been a place of great sanctity in ancient times and was originally called Vedagarbha ‘the womb of the Vedas’. Local tradition derives the name of the town from a tank originally called aghsar , or effacer of sins, which was later changed to baghsar , the tiger tank. It was at Buxar, on 23 October 1764, that the forces of Mīr Ḳāsim, ex-nawāb of Bengal, and S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ al-Dawla, na…

Awrangābād Sayyid

(31 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a small town in the Bulands̲h̲ahr district of Uttar Pradesh, founded in 1704 by Sayyid ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, a descendant of Sayyid Ḏj̲alāl al-Ḥusayn of Buk̲h̲ārā. (C. Collin-Davies)


(239 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, tract of mountainous country in the Dīr, Swāt, and Čitrāl agency of the Pes̲h̲āwar division, West Pākistān. It is bounded on the north by Dīr; on the east by Dīr and Swāt; on the southeast and south by the Utmān Ḵh̲ēl and Mamund territories; and on the west by Afg̲h̲ānistān. It has an area of about 5,000 square miles and is intersected by five valleys—the Čahārmung, Bābūkara, Watalai, Rūd, and Sūr Kamar. In the absence of any census the population has been estimated at 100,000. Bād̲j̲awr is th…


(237 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a town and district in the state of Bombay having in 1951 a population of 1,179,404. During the reign of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī the Hindu rulers of this part of the Deccan were forced to pay tribute to the Muslim invaders. In 1347 it was incorporated in the Bahmanī kingdom and with the disintegration of that kingdom became part of the Niẓām S̲h̲āhī sultanate of Aḥmadnagar. Under Malik ʿAmbar, an able Abyssinian minister, Aḥmadnagar offered a stubborn resistance to the Mug̲h̲al invaders, but, …


(350 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, village, fort, and district in the upper Yārkhūn valley formerly included in the Dīr, Swat and Citrāl Political Agency of the North-West Frontier Province of British India and now in Pakistan. It apparently formed part of the ancient territory of Syāmāka (Sylvain Lévi, in JA, ser. 11, vol. v, 76; and H. Lüders, Weitere Beiträge zur Geschichte und Geographie von Ostturkestan , 1930, 29 ff.). Stein identifies Mastūd̲j̲ with the territory of Čü-wei or S̲h̲ang-mi which was visited by the Chinese pilgrim Wu-k’ung in the 8th century A.D. ( Ancient Khotan , Oxford 1907, i, 15-16, Serindia


(303 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a division, district, taḥṣīl, and town in the north-west of the Pand̲j̲āb. The division has an area of 21,347 square miles and a population of 3,914,849 of whom 3,362,260 are Muḥammadans. The district, which is divided for administrative purposes into four ¶ taḥṣīls, has an area of 2,050 square miles, with a population of 634,357 (524,965 Muḥammadans). The taḥṣīl covers an area of 770 square miles and supports a population of 289,073 (212,256 Muḥammadans). The town and cantonment, situated on the north bank of the river Leh, have a population of 119,2…

Nūr Ḏj̲ahān

(424 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, name given to Mihr al-Nisāʾ, the famous queen of Ḏj̲ahāngīr, the Mug̲h̲al Emperor. She was born at Ḳandahār in 1577 when her father, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ Beg, was migrating from Persia to Hindustān ( Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Umarāʾ, i. 129). In the reign of Akbar she was married to ʿAlī Ḳulī Beg, a Persian who had rendered distinguished military service to the Emperor and who, because of his bravery, was known as S̲h̲īr Afgan. The assassination of her first husband will always remain a matter of controversy, some regarding it as a repetition of t…


(1,285 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(Awad̲h̲), a district now forming part of the United Provinces of modern India, has an area of 24,154 square miles and a population of 12,794,979, of which 11,870,266 are to be found in the rural districts (Census of India, 1931). From very early times Oud̲h̲ and the neighbouring countries of the great alluvial plain of northern India have been the peculiar home of Hindu civilization. The ancient Hindu kingdom of Kosala corresponded very nearly to the present province of Oud̲h̲. Its capital, Ayod̲h̲yā, the modern Ad̲j̲od̲h̲yā on the r…
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