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Pand̲j̲dih

(881 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, (Pend̲j̲deh) a village in the Turkoman republic of the U. S. S. R., situated to the east of the Kus̲h̲k river near its junction with the Murg̲h̲āb at Pul-i Kis̲h̲ti. The fact that the inhabitants of this area, the Sarik Turkomans, were divided into five sections, the Soktis, Harzagis, Ḵh̲urāsānlis, Bairač, and the ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, has been put forward as a possible explanation of the origin of the name Pend̲j̲deh, but it carries no weight as the Sariks were only nineteenth century immigrants whereas the name was in use in the fifteenth century. This obscure oasis owes a somewhat melancholy…

Rangoon

(956 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a city in the Pegu division of Burma lying on both sides of the Hlaing river at its point of junction with the Pegu river and the Pazundaung creek, twenty-one miles from the sea. Legend, not entirely undocumented, relates that the great pagoda at Rangoon (Mon, Kyaik Lagung; Burmese, Shwe Dagon) was founded during the life-time of the Buddha and was repaired by the emperor Açoka ( J. B. R. S., xxiv. 4 and 20). History proper begins with the establishment of Pegu as the capital of a Mon kingdom in 1369. ¶ A convenient port was required for this kingdom. Bassein, which had been the chief…

Riḍīya

(451 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(1236-1240 a. d.), the only woman to succeed to the throne of Dihlī during the period of Muslim rule, and, with the exception of S̲h̲ad̲j̲ar al-Durr [q. v.] of Egypt, the only female sovereign in the history of Islām. After the death of his eldest son, Īltutmis̲h̲ [q. v.], despite the protests of his advisers, nominated his daughter Riḍīya as his successor on the grounds of her fitness to rule. On the death of Īltutmis̲h̲) the courtiers, disregarding the late king’s wishes, raised one of his sons, Rukn al-Dīn Fīrūz, to the throne. Th…

Nāʾib

(711 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R. | Davies, C. Collin
(a.), literally “substitute, delegate” (nomen agentis from n-w-b “to take the place of another”), the term applied generally to any person appointed as deputy of another in an official position, and more especially, in the Mamlūk and Dihlī Sulṭānates, to designate a. the deputy or lieutenant of the Sulṭān and b. the governors of the chief provinces (see also the article egypt, above, vol. ii., p. 16a). In the Mamlūk system the former, entitled nāʾ ib al-salṭana al-muʿaẓẓama wa-kāfil al-maniālik al-s̲h̲arīfa al-islāmīya, was the Vice-Sulṭān proper, who administered all the te…

Niẓām S̲h̲āh

(618 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, title assumed in 895 (1490) by Malik Aḥmad Baḥrī, founder of the Niẓām S̲h̲āhī state of Aḥmadnagar [q. v.], one of the five independent sulṭānates which arose out of the ruins of the Bahmanī kingdom of the Dakhan towards the end of the fifteenth century. Fora chronological list and genealogical table of these kings of Aḥmadnagar see Cambridge History of India, iii. 704—705; also Zambaur, Manuel, p. 298—299. The second ruler, Burhān Niẓām S̲h̲āh I (914— 960 = 1509—1553), adopted, in 1537, the S̲h̲īʿa form of Islām which, except for a brief period under Ismāʿīl w…

Pand̲j̲āb

(1,791 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the land of the five rivers, is a province of modern India which, together with the North-West Frontier Province and Kas̲h̲mīr [q. v.], occupies the extreme north-western corner of the Indian Empire, and, with the exception of ¶ the recently-constituted Delhi province, comprises all of British India north of Sind and Rād̲j̲pūtāna and west of the river Ḏj̲amna. Geographically therefore it includes more than its name implies, for, in addition to the country watered by the Ḏj̲helum, Čināb, Rāwī, Beās, and Satled̲j̲, it embraces the t…

Rampur

(1,141 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, an Indian state in Rohilk̲h̲and under the political supervision of the government of the United Provinces. It is bounded on the north by the district of Nainī Tāl; on the east by Bareilly; on the south by the Bisauli taḥṣīl of Budāūn; and on the west by the district of Morādābād. The early history of Rāmpur is that of the growth of Rohilla power in Rohilk̲h̲and. After the establishment of Muslim rule. in India large ¶ bodies of Afg̲h̲āns or Paṭhāns settled down in the country. So powerful did they become that they were twice able to establish their rule in northern In…

Pes̲h̲āwar

(1,130 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a district, taḥṣīl, and city in the North-West Frontier Province of British India. The district which lies between 71° 25′ and 72° 47′ E. and 33° 40′ and 34° 31′ N. has an area of 2,637 square miles and a population of 947,321 of whom 92 per cent are Muslims (1931 Census Report). It is bounded on the east by the river Indus, which separates it from the Pand̲j̲āb and Hazāra, and on the south-east by the Nīlāb G̲h̲as̲h̲a range which shuts it off from the district of Kōhāt. Elsewhere it is bounded b…

Mohmand

(755 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a Paṭhān tribe on the north-west frontier of India. The territories inhabited by the Mohmands stretch from the north-west of the Pes̲h̲āwar district across the Durand boundary into Afg̲h̲ānistān. Towards the end of the xvth century according to local tradition, two large branches of Paṭhān tribes, the Khakhai and the G̲h̲orīa Ḵh̲ēl, migrated from their homes in Afg̲h̲ānistān to the northwest frontier of India. By the opening years of the xvith century the Mohmands, who were a tribe of the G̲h̲orīa Ḵh̲ēl, had reached the Khyber area. They were never reall…

Quetta

(658 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(Pas̲h̲tu: Kwaṭṭa), a taḥṣīl and town in the Quetta-Pis̲h̲īn district of British Balūčistān [q. v.]. The district, which contains the taḥṣīls of Quetta and Pis̲h̲īn and the administrative sub-division of Čaman, has an area of 4,806 square miles and a population of 147,541, of whom 107,945 are Muslims. Nearly all these Muslims are Pas̲h̲tu speaking Paṭhāns, only a very small minority speaking Brahūī and Balūčī. The district, which is very mountainous, is bounded on the north-west by Afg̲h̲ān territory, on the east b…

Mullagorī

(223 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a tribe on the north-west frontier of India. They inhabit the hilly country around Tārtāra and ¶ Kambela to the north of the Ḵh̲yber Pass. Their territories are bounded on the north by the Kābul river; on the west by the S̲h̲ilmānī country; on the south by the settlements of the Kuki Ḵh̲ēl Afrīdīs; and on the east by the Pes̲h̲āwar district. The tribe is divided into three clans: the Aḥmad Ḵh̲ēl, Ismāʿīl, and the Dawlat Ḵh̲ēl. Like the Ṣāfīs and the S̲h̲ilmānīs they are vassal clans of the Mohmands. N…

Pargana

(617 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the Indian name for an aggregate of villages. The first reference to this term in the chronicles of the Sultanate of Delhi appears to be in the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Fīrūz S̲h̲āhī of S̲h̲ams-i Sirād̲j̲ ʿAfīf ( Bibliotheca Indica, 1891, p. 99), for it is not used by Ḥasan al-Niẓāmī in ¶ his Tād̲j̲ al-Maʾāsir or by Minhād̲j̲ al-Dīn in his Ṭabaḳāt-i Nāṣirī. Although it first came into prominence in the xivth century partially superseding the term ḳaṣba, it is, in all probability, based on still more ancient divisions in existence before the Muslim conquest. The exact date of its c…

Mastūd̲j̲

(282 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a village, fort, and district in the upper Yārkhūn valley at present included in the Dīr, Swāt and Čitrāl Political Agency of the North-West Frontier Province of India. It apparently formed part of the ancient territory of Śyāmāka (M. Sylvain Levi, in J. A., xi., vol. v., p. 76; and Lüders, Weitere Beiträge zur Geschichte und Geographie von Ostturkestan, 1930, p. 29 sqq.). Stein identifies Mastūd̲j̲ with the territory of Čü-wei or S̲h̲ang-mi which was visited ¶ by the Chinese pilgrim Wu-K’ung in the viiith century a. d. ( Ancient khotan, i., foot note on p. 15—16; Serindia, i. 18). An insc…

Rād̲j̲pūts

(1,638 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, inhabitants of India, who claim to be the modern representatives of the Ks̲h̲atriyas of ancient tradition. (From the Sanskrit rād̲j̲aputra “a king’s son”. For the connection between Rād̲j̲anya and Ks̲h̲atriya see Macdonell and Keith, Vedic Index, i., s. v. Kṣatriya). The term Rād̲j̲pūt has no racial significance. It simply denotes a tribe, clan, or warlike class, the members of which claim aristocratic rank, a claim generally reinforced by Brahman recognition. The origin of the Rād̲j̲pūts is a problem which bristles with difficulties. The theory which at present …

Orissa

(512 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(Odra-deça), a part of the modern Indian province of Bihar and Orissa, has an area of 13,706 square miles and a population of 5,306,142, of which only 124,463 profess the Muslim faith. For administrative purposes it is divided into the five districts of Cuttack, Balasore, Purl, Angul and Sambalpur. There are in addition twenty-four native states, the Orissa feudatory states, with a population of 4,465,385, the Muḥammadans numbering only 17,100 (Census of India, 1931). Modern Orissa, which embraces the deltas of the Mahānadī and neighbouring rivers, extends from the Ba…

Pūna

(419 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a city and district of British India in the Central Division of the Bombay Presidency. The district has an area of 5,332 square miles and a population of 1,169,798 of whom 54,997 are Muslims ( Census Report, 1931). It was included in the powerful Āndhra kingdom of the Dakhan which came to an end about the middle of the third century a. d.. The available ¶ evidence also points to the fact that later the Western Čālukyas, the Rās̲h̲trakūtas, and the Deogīrī Yādavas ruled over this area. With the Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī and Ṭug̲h̲luḳ [see muḥammad ṭug̲h̲luḳ] invasions of the Dakhan it came under Muslim…

Rāwalpindi

(303 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a division, district, taḥṣīl, and town in the north-west of the Pand̲j̲āb. The division has an area of 21,347 square miles and a population of 3,914,849 of whom 3,362,260 are Muḥammadans. The district, which is divided for administrative purposes into four ¶ taḥṣīls, has an area of 2,050 square miles, with a population of 634,357 (524,965 Muḥammadans). The taḥṣīl covers an area of 770 square miles and supports a population of 289,073 (212,256 Muḥammadans). The town and cantonment, situated on the north bank of the river Leh, have a population of 119,2…

Nūr Ḏj̲ahān

(424 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, name given to Mihr al-Nisāʾ, the famous queen of Ḏj̲ahāngīr, the Mug̲h̲al Emperor. She was born at Ḳandahār in 1577 when her father, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ Beg, was migrating from Persia to Hindustān ( Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Umarāʾ, i. 129). In the reign of Akbar she was married to ʿAlī Ḳulī Beg, a Persian who had rendered distinguished military service to the Emperor and who, because of his bravery, was known as S̲h̲īr Afgan. The assassination of her first husband will always remain a matter of controversy, some regarding it as a repetition of t…

Bāonī

(146 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, formerly a petty Muslim state in the Bundelkhand Agency of Central India, is now administered as part of Madhya Pradesh (area: 122 square miles; population: 25, 256, of which only 12% are Muslims). Its rulers were descended from ʿImād al-Mulk G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn, the grandson of Āṣaf D̲j̲āh, the Niẓām of Ḥaydarābād. About 1784 G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn came to terms with the Marāthās who granted him a d̲j̲āgīr of 52 villages, the name Bāonī being derived from bāwan (fifty-two). This grant was later recognised by the British. Because of his loyalty during the 1857 revolt, the nawāb was granted a sanad

Nūr D̲j̲ahān

(432 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
name given to Mihr al-Nisāʾ the famous queen of D̲j̲ahāngīr, the Mug̲h̲al Emperor. She was born at Ḳandahār in 985/1577 when her father, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ Beg, was migrating from Persia to Hindustan ( Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ , i, 129). In the reign of Akbar she was married to ʿAlī Ḳulī Beg, a Persian who had rendered distinguished military service to the Emperor and who, because of his bravery, was known as S̲h̲īr Afgan. The assassination of her first husband will always remain a matter of controversy, ¶ some regarding it as a repetition of the story of David and Uriah, others holding t…
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