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Colloredo, Hieronymus Graf von

(307 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (May 31, 1732, Vienna – May 20, 1812, ibid.) was the last prince-archbishop of Salzburg. His family (his father, and later his brother, were imperial vice-chancellors) secured his accession to ecclesiastical positions from early on: cathedral canon in Salzburg in 1747, auditor of the Rota in Rome in 1759, bishop of Gurk by appointment of Maria Theresia in 1761. In the latter function, his administration was marked by reform-Catholic tendencies. Elected a…

Martin of Cochem

(194 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1634, Cochem – Sep 10, 1712, Waghäusel), Capuchin (1653), theologian, and popular writer. After ordination to the priesthood (1657/1658), Martin taught in the order's houses of studies, served as a pastor and a official visitor in the dioceses of Mainz (1682–1685) and Trier (1698/1699), and occasionally as a domestic missionary in Passau, Linz, and Prague. He was one of the most important writers of popular religious literature and an exponent of passion piety. His explanation of the mass ( Meßerklärung, 1695; ET: Cochem's Explanation of the Holy Sacrifi…

Stensen, Nils

(191 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] ( Jan 11, 1638, Copenhagen – Dec 5, 1686, Schwerin) studied languages, anatomy, and mathematics in Copenhagen, Amsterdam, and Leiden. His anatomical discoveries soon gained him the reputation as a scientist. In 1666 he was appointed physician to the court in Florence, where he converted to Catholicism. Discoveries during various expeditions placed him amongthe founders of scientific geology, paleontology, and crystallography. After ordination to the priesthood in 1675, he was appo…

Sylvan (Silvan), Johannes

(147 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (born in South Tyrol – Dec 23, 1572, Heidelberg), theologian, preacher, convert to Protestantism. Around 1555 he was active in Würzburg as a preacher on current controversies for the bishop. His reading of the works of Melanchthon led him to Reformation theology. In 1560 he converted to Lutheranism in Tübingen and became a pastor in Calw. Frederick III of the Electoral Palatine appointed him to serve as a Reformed pastor and superintendent in Kaiserslauten and after 1567 in Ladenb…

Ems, Congress of

(555 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] The Congress of Ems was a meeting of deputies representing the archbishops of Mainz (Friedrich Karl Joseph, Freiherr v. Erthal), Cologne (Max Franz of Austria), Trier (Klemens Wenceslaus of Saxony), and Salzburg (H. Graf Colloredo). They met at Bad Ems from Jul 25 to Aug 25, 1786, to decide on joint action by the German metropolitans against jurisdictional interference by the Roman Curi…

Gretser, Jakob

(177 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1562, Markdorf – Jan 18, 1625, Ingolstadt), SJ (1679), a controversial theologian. He taught initially at the Jesuit gymnasia in Freiburg, Switzerland and Ingolstadt; after 1589, he was professor of philosophy, then of scholastic theology (1592–1605) and moral theology in Ingolstadt (1610–1615). After the departure of his teacher Gregory of Valencia, he was the leader of the Jesuits in Bavaria and adviser to the dukes (i.e. the Bavarian elector). He harshly persecuted all…

Thomassin, Louis

(103 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Aug 25, 1619, Aix-en-Provence – Dec 24, 1695, Paris), Catholic theologian and canonist. He joined the Oratorians in 1633 and served as professor of theology at Saumur (1648) and Paris (1653). Removed from his teaching duties on account of doctrinal differences, after 1673 he devoted himself to historical studies, primarily applying historical methods to the study of canon law. Rolf Decot Bibliography P. Clair, Louis Thomassin, 1964 (bibl.; Fr.) F.J. Busch, Lex Christi secundum naturam, 1975 (Ger.) H.J. Sieben, Die katholische Konzilsidee von der Reformation…

Schoppe, Casper

(167 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jun 26, 1576, Pappenberg – Oct 18 1649, Padua), polymath, late Humanist, phi­lologist, controversial theologian, jurisprudent, and politician. The son of a Protestant pastor, he converted to Catholicism in Prague in 1598. In Rome from 1598 to 1607, he cultivated ties with the pope and the Curia. He was sent on several diplomatic missions in Germany and Italy on behalf of the Habsburgs, the Wittelsbachs, and the Curia. He wrote polemics against various ¶ schools of Protestantism. Around 1630, after the emperor’s victory in the Thirty Years War, Schoppe …

Ringeisen, Dominikus

(113 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1835, Unterfinnigen – May 4, 1904, Ursberg), Catholic priest (1864), founder of the St. Joseph Congregation of Sisters (Joseph, Orders of Saint) for nursing, education, and teaching. In the secularized monastery of Ursberg, Ringeisen created in 1884 an institution for the care of the mentally handicapped, the so-called deaf and dumb, and the physically disabled. Further institutions were set up at Pfaffenhofen (1885), Bildhausen (1897), and Krönenbach (1901). Ringeisen is regarded as an initiator of support for the disabled in Bavaria. Rolf Decot Bibliogra…

Canisius, Peter (Saint)

(398 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Peter Kanis until c. 1547; May 8, 1521, Nijmegen – Dec 21, 1597, Fribourg, ¶ Switzerland) contributed to the renewal of the Catholic Church after the Reformation. Residing in Cologne from 1535 onward, he became the first German Jesuit in 1543. He turned to Charles V of Germany for support against the reforming attempt of the archbishop of Cologne (Hermann of Wied). After a brief stay at the Council of Trent and the continuation of his Jesuit training in Rome …

Innocent XI, Pope

(374 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (papacy Sep 21, 1676 – Aug 12, 1689) (Benedetto Odescalchi, b. May 19, 1611, in Como). Odescalchi, made cardinal in 1645, served as legate in Ferrara from 1646 to 1650 and as bishop of Novara from 1650 to 1656. He was renowned for his exemplary lifestyle and concern for the poor. After a two-month conclave, he was unanimously elected pope in 1676, after the resistance of France, who had opposed him in 1670, was overcome. Within the church, he sought a middle way in the controversy…

Walenburch, Adrian and Peter van

(198 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Adrian: May 23, 1609, Rotterdam – Sep 12, 1669, Wiesbaden; Peter: 1610, Rotterdam – Dec 21, 1675, Cologne), theological controversialists and bishops. After completion of their legal studies in Angers, in 1641 the nuncio Fabio Chigo persuaded them to go to the confessionally unstable duchy of Jülich-Berg. Adrian went to Cologne in 1645, where he became a canon of the cathedral in 1647, officialis in 1648, and auxiliary bishop in 1661. Peter was appointed auditor of the nunciature. In 1658 Johann Philipp v. Schönborn brought him to Mainz as a…

Sirmond, Jacques

(194 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Oct 12, 1559, Riom – Oct 7, 1651, Paris), French Jesuit (1576). From 1581 to 1590 he taught in Pont-à-Mousson and Paris (where Francis of Sales was one of his students). From 1590 to 1608 he served as secretary to C. Aquaviva, the superior general of the Jesuits, in Rome, where he also worked with C. Baronius. In 1617 he was appointed rector of the Collège de Clermont in Paris. From 1637 to 1643 he was the confessor of Louis XIII. He wrote scholarly works on history and the history of dogma. He distinguished ¶ between Dionysius of Paris and Dionysius Areopagita, wrote on p…

Labbé (Labbeus), Philippe

(153 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jul 10, 1607, Bourges – Mar 17, 1667, Paris), French Jesuit (1623), theologian, philologist, and editor of sources pertaining to church history. After lecturing in Caen, Bourges, and Paris, Labbé worked mainly as an author. An erudite compiler with many interests (geography, chronology, patristics, Byzantine studies), he wrote more than 80 works and was regarded as one of the leading scholars of his time. His most important publication is the compilation of the acts of the counci…

Petavius, Dionysius

(168 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Petau; Aug 21, 1583, Orléans – Dec 11, 1652, Paris), French Jesuit (from 1605). Initially Petavius taught rhetoric in Reims, La Flèche, and Paris; from 1621 to 1644 he was professor of theology at the Collège de Clermont in Paris. He published significant editions of patristic texts (Synesius of Cyrene, Epiphanius of Salamis) and important studies on chronology. His major work, Theologica dogmatica, which bases the church’s teaching on Scripture and tradition, earned him a reputation as a pioneer of positive theology. He also wrote polemica…

Gorizia

(202 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Ger. Görz) is an archdiocese, a city and province in Friaul, Italy; mentioned after 1001 as a duchy of the reeves of the patriarchate of Aquileia. Around 1500, the duchy came into the possession of the Habsburgs. Gorizia's ecclesiastical affiliation with Venetian Aquileia led to tensions with Austria until Pope Benedict XIV, under pressure from Maria Theresia, dissolved Aquileia and established the archdioceses of Udine for the Venetian segment and Gorizia for the Austrian segmen…

Erthal, Franz Ludwig von

(168 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Sep 16, 1730, Lohr – Feb 14, 1795, Würzburg) was the pro-reform prince-bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg. Under the bishop of Würzburg, Adam Friedrich v. Seinsheim, he became president of the secular administration of the diocese in 1763. In 1767 Joseph II called him to visit the Imperial Supreme Court in Wetzlar and in 1775 the continuing Reichstag at Regensburg. …

Gregory XIII, Pope

(318 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (May 14, 1572 – Apr 10, 1586; Ugo Buoncompagni, b. Jan 7, 1502, Bologna). Professor of canon law in Bologna (1531–1539), and member of the curia from 1539, which sent him to the Council of Trent (1546; 1561–1563). He became bishop of Viesti in 1558, and cardinal and legate in Spain in 1565. Elected in 1572 with Spanish support, he became the pope of the Counter-Reformation and of Catholic reform. He promoted the consolidation of the Catholic church throughout Europe: in France (Hu…

Sanchez, Thomas

(105 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (1550, Cordoba – May 19, 1610, Granada), Jesuit (from 1567) moral theologian. His three-volume treatment of marriage became a standard work, although its open and detailed description drew censure. He anticipated the modern view that not every instance of marital intercourse need be intended for procreation. Jansenists accused him of laxism. Rolf Decot Bibliography Works include: Disputationum de sancto matrimonii sacramento... libri 10, 3 vols., 1602–1605 Opus morale in praecepta Decalogi, 2 vols., 1613–1621 On Sanchez: BCJ 7, 1896, 530–537, suppl. no.…

Montfaucon, Bernard de

(252 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jan 16, 1655, Soulage – Dec 21, 1741, Paris), Order of St. Benedict (1676), member of the Maurists (Congrégation de S. Maur), theologian and editor of patristic texts. Born into a noble family of southern France and already introduced to scholarly life as a child, he served in the military from 1672 to 1674. After joining the Benedictine congregation of the Maurists, he lived in various monasteries before coming to Paris in 1687 in order to contribute to the congregation's publications, especially the editions of the Greek church fathers ( Athanasius, 3 vols., 1698). …
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