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Talmud

(5,043 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland
The Talmud as a Compendium of Jewish Life and Teaching 1. “The Talmud and all of its expansions form the backbone of Jewish tradition.”1 The Talmud (Heb., talmud, ‘study,’ ‘instruction,’ ‘doctrine’) is appropriately described as the compendium of the life and teaching of Judaism since the end of ancient times. More narrowly, this is true only of the Babylonian Talmud, so called from the place of its emergence in the Jewish academies of Sura and Pumbedita in Babylonia, from the fifth to the early eighth century. This text is what “ the Talmud” usually indicates. The Jerusalem, or Pales…

Pharisaioi, Pharisäer

(1,531 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland (Herrenberg)
(Φαρισαῖοι, meist im Pl. gebraucht). [English version] I. Definition, Name Jüdische Religionspartei spätestens ab Mitte des 2. Jh.v.Chr., die unter dem Namen Ph. ausschließlich bei Iosephos [4] Flavios, in Teilen des NT (Evangelien; Apg; einmal bei Paulus [2]: Phil 3,5,) und davon abhängig in der patristischen Lit. genannt ist. In der jüd. Traditionslit. ab dem 2. Jh.n.Chr. (Rabbinische Literatur) kommt die entsprechende hebr. Gruppenbezeichnung perūšīm relativ selten vor, häufig in Opposition zu den Sadduzäern. Strittig ist, inwieweit in diesen Textcorpor…

Sadduzäer

(910 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland (Herrenberg)
(Σαδδουκαῖοι; lat. Sadducaei). [English version] I. Name und Quellen Die S. bilden neben den Pharisäern (Pharisaioi) und Essenern die dritte innerjüd. Gruppierung, die das rel. und polit. Geschick des jüd. Palaestina von der Mitte des 2. Jh. v. Chr. bis zur Zerstörung des Jerusalemer Tempels 70 n. Chr. maßgeblich prägte. Der griech. Name Saddukaíoi (nur im Pl. bezeugt) geht verm. auf den Oberpriester Zadok z.Z. Davids [1] zurück (Σαδδουκ, LXX), in dessen Familie bis ins 2. Jh. v. Chr. die hohepriesterliche Würde erblich war. Die S. wären demnach …

Pharisaei, Pharisees

(1,622 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland (Herrenberg)
(Φαρισαῖοι/ Pharisaîoi, usually plural). [German version] I. Definition, name A Jewish religious party from at least the middle of the 2nd cent. BC, mentioned as Pharisaei only in Iosephus [4] Flavius, in parts of the NT (Gospels; Acts; once in Paulus [2]: Phil 3,5,) and, based on that, in the patristic literature. In the Jewish traditional literature from the 2nd cent. AD on (Rabbinical Literature) the corresponding Hebrew collective term perūšīm occurs relatively infrequently, often in contrast to the Sadducees. It is controversial to what extent the Pharisees t…

Sadducees

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland (Herrenberg)
(Σαδδουκαῖοι/ Saddoukaîoi; Lat. Sadducaei). [German version] I. Name and Origins Along with the Pharisees (Pharisaei) and Essenes, the Sadducees make up the third inner-Jewish circle and definitively shaped the religious and political fortune of Jewish Palaestina from the mid 2nd cent. BC to the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem in AD 70. The Greek name Saddoukaîoi (attested only in plur.) supposedly comes from Zadok, the chief priest at the time of David [1] (Σαδδουκ/ Saddouk, LXX), whose family held the office of high priest hereditarily down to the 2nd cent. BC…

Calvary

(787 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland | Arnulf, Arwed | Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Name – II. Art and Liturgy – III. Roman Catholic Congregations I. Name The Greek interpretation of the Aramaic Golgotha as Κρανίου Τόπος/ Kraniou Topos, “Skull Place” (Matt 27:33; Mark 15:22; John 19:17; cf. Luke 23:32), is rendered almost uniformly in the Latin versions (Old Latin, Vulgate) as c alvariae locus. The Latin form gave rise to “Calvary” and similar terms in other European languages. It is based on the Latin noun calvaria, “cranium, skull,” which makes its first appearance in the middle of the 1st century ce in medical works (Aurelius Cornelius Celsus,…