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(1,350 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
1. BegriffH. war vom 16. bis zum 18. Jh. eine ursprünglich pejorative Bezeichnung für die franz. Reformierten ( Calvinismus). Der Terminus geht wohl auf das seit 1520 belegte eyguenot (»Eidgenossen«) zurück und ist seit der Verschwörung von Amboise 1560 – neben der Benennung als Anhänger der »vorgeblich reformierten Religion« (franz. religion prétendue réformée, R.P. R.) – auch in offiziellen Texten zu finden, nachdem man zu Anfang die reformatorisch Gesinnten évangéliques oder luthériens genannt hatte.Irene Dingel2. Formierung der kirchlichen InstitutionBereits in den …
Date: 2019-11-19


(1,430 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
1. Concept “Huguenot” from the 16th to 18th centuries was the originally pejorative term for French Calvinists. It probably derived from eyguenot (“oath-companion, confederate”, cf. the German word for the Swiss,  Eidgenosse), attested from 1520. Reformation sympathizers were initially called évangéliques or  luthériens in official documents, but after the 1560 Amboise Conspiracy, the term “Huguenot” was also used, defined as followers of the “purportedly reformed religion” (French  religion prétendue réformée, R.P.R.).Irene Dingel 2. Establishment of c…
Date: 2019-10-14

Saumur, Huguenot Academy

(401 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] The establishment, rise, and heyday of the Saumur academy are closely associated with the name of P. Duplessis-Mornay. In March of 1593, the governor of Saumur received from King Henry IV a decree empowering him to found an academy; this and the Edict of Nantes in 1598 (Huguenots: I, 1) created the conditions for establishing a Calvinist training center in that city, which was one of the safe havens for Huguenots. The Academy comprised a collège, a faculty of arts, and a faculty of theology, with chairs in rhetoric, ancient languages, mathematics, philos…

Court, Antoine

(160 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1695, Villeneuve-de-Berg – Jun 13, 1760, Lausanne). While still a young man, Court resolved to become an itinerant preacher for the purpose of consolidating southern French Protestantism, which had been greatly weakened by the persecution of the Huguenots. In order to achieve this goal, the synodal constitution and church discipline, but also the regular formation of theologians were to be reestablished. On Aug 21, 1715, he convened the first s…

Fleury, Claude

(208 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1640, Paris – Jul 14, 1723, Paris). After attending the Jesuit college in Clermont, Fleury studied law and became parliamentary advocate in 1658. In 1667, he began to study theology under the influence of J.-B. Bossuet and was ordained priest on Jun 8, 1669. From 1672 to 1680, he was the tutor of the princes of Conti, and from 1680 to 1683 of the count of Vermandois, a legitimate son of Louis XIV. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Fleury participated alongside F…

Jurieu, Pierre

(339 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 24, 1637, Mer, Département Loir-et-Cher – Jan 11, 1713, Rotterdam). The son of a Reformed pastor and grandson of the theologian ¶ P. Du Moulin studied in Saumur, Sedan, and England, where he was ordained according to the Anglican rite. In 1660 – after a Calvinist ordination – he succeeded his father in Mer; in 1674, he became professor of theology and Hebrew in Sedan. After the dissolution of the academy in 1681, Jurieu, who had become suspect because of his pamphlet, “La politique du clergé de Fra…

Casaubonus, Isaac

(177 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 18, 1559, Geneva – Jul 12, 1614, London). After study at the Geneva Academy, this son of a Huguenot pastor became professor of Greek there in 1583. He taught in Montpellier (1596–1599) but was called to Paris in 1600 by Henry IV. As royal commissioner he took part in the disputation between P. Duplessis-Mornay and Cardinal Duperron, in which he spoke for the latter, earning him the mistrust of his fellow believers. In 1610 he answered a call…

Postel, Guillaume

(346 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Mar 25, 1510, Dolerie, near Barenton, Normandy – Sep 6, 1581, Paris) studied in Paris, where he became adept in many languages. His participation in a French delegation to Constantinople (1535–1537) brought him into contact with Arabic. On his return, he published not only a grammar of Arabic (c. 1538) but Linguarum duodecim characteribus (1538), a comparative study in which his later ideas were already laid out: the derivation of all languages from Hebrew, the need for Christian mission in the face ¶ of Islam, and knowledge of languages as an instrument for th…

Coligny, Gaspard de

(255 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Seigneur de Châtillon; Feb 16, 1519, Châtillon-sur-Loing – Aug 24, 1572, Paris) was admiral of France from 1552 onward, and governor of Picardy from 1555. A Calvinist sympathizer, he was captured by the Spanish at the battle of St. Quentin (1557) and held captive in the Netherlands. The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (Apr 3, 1559) enabled him to resume his diplomatic functions. By speaking out in defense of his persecuted co-religionists during the a…

Ferry, Paul

(182 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 24, 1591, Metz, France – Dec 28, 1669, Metz). After attending the Jesuit college in Metz, Ferry, from a leading Huguenot family (Huguenots) began his study of the liberal arts in 1607 ( artes liberales ) in La Rochelle and transferred in 1609 to Montauban, to study Protestant theology there until 1611. He was ordained a pastor in Metz on Jan 1, 1612. J.B. Bossuet attacked his Catéchisme général de la réformation et de la religion (1656), and the two were engaged in dialogue thereafter. Ferry eventually rejected Bossuet's attempts at denominational rapprochement. Ferr…

Chandieu, Antoine de la Roche

(179 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (c. 1534, chateau Chabottes-en-Mâconnais – Feb 23, 1591, Geneva). Having already come into contact with Reformed thinking through his tutor in Paris, after law studies in Toulouse Chandieu went to Geneva, where he was won over for the Reformation by Calvin and Beza. From 1557 to 1562 he was pastor of the Protestant congregation in Paris and he took part in the first general synod in 1559, also participating in the preparation of the confession a…

Daillé, Jean

(167 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dallaeus; Jan 1, 1594, Châtellerault – Apr 15, 1670, Paris), Reformed theologian. After studying philosophy in Châtellerault and Poitiers, Daillé turned to theology in 1612 in Saumur. As the tutor of the grandchildren of P. Duplessis-Mornay in Saumur, he became friends with the professors of the academy and traveled with his students through Western …

Cavalier, Jean

(150 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Nov 28, 1681, Ribaute-les-Tavernes – May 17, 1740, Chelsea). First a shepherd, then a baker's apprentice, Cavalier fled to Geneva in 1701 for faith reasons. Already in the following year, he stepped forward as a “prophet” and military leader of the Camisards who were secretly gathering in the Cévennes for armed resistance. While the counter-measures of the marshal of Montrevel proved ineffective, his successor Villars succeeded in subduing Cava…


(163 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] (Rivetus), Andre´ (Andreas; 22.6.1572 St. Maixent – 7.1.1651 Breda), wurde nach seinem Studium an der ref. Akademie in Orthez, u.a. bei L. Daneau, sowie in La Rochelle 1595 Kaplan des Duc de la Trémouille und Pfarrer in Thouars. 1620 folgte er einem Ruf an die Universität Leiden. 1632 wurde er durch Friedrich Heinrich von Oranien als Erzieher seines Sohnes, des späteren Königs Wilhelm II., verpflichtet. Seine damit verbundene Tätigkeit als Rat und Hofprediger endete mit der Überna…


(369 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] (hugenottische Akademie). Entstehung, Aufstieg und Blüte der Akademie von S. sind eng mit dem Namen Ph. Duplessis-Mornays verbunden. Im März 1593 erhielt der Gouverneur von S. von König Heinrich IV. den ihn zur Gründung ermächtigenden Bescheid, der zus. mit dem Edikt von Nantes (1598; Hugenotten: I.,1.) die Voraussetzungen für die Einrichtung einer calvinistischen Ausbildungsstätte in jener zu den hugenottischen Sicherheitsplätzen gehörenden Stadt schuf. Die Akademie bestand aus …


(299 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] Pufendorf, Samuel Frhr. v. (8.1.1632 Dorfchemnitz – 26.10.1694 Berlin). Nach dem Besuch der Fürstenschule in Grimma (1645–1650) studierte P. 1650–1658 in Leipzig und Jena, bevor er eine Stelle als Hauslehrer bei dem schwedischen Gesandten Peter Julius Coyet in Kopenhagen antrat. Sein während dänischer Gefangenschaft (1658) vf., 1660 publiziertes und Karl Ludwig von der Pfalz gewidmetes Werk »Elementorum Jurisprudentiae Universalis libri duo« trug P. 1661 eine Berufung nach Heidelber…

Staffortsches Buch

(187 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] (1599). Das S. ist Zeugnis des Konfessionswechsels des Markgrafen Ernst Friedrich von Baden-Durlach, eines der drei Söhne des Markgrafen Karl II., für die die Vormünder Kurfürst Ludwig von der Pfalz, Pfalzgraf Philipp Ludwig von Neuburg und Herzog Ludwig von Württemberg nach dessen Tod die Konkordienformel unterzeichnet hatten. Mit dem auf Schloß Staffort bei Durlach gedr. Buch, bestehend – in seiner weiteren Fassung – aus einer ablehnenden Stellungnahme zur Formula Concordiae un…


(316 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] Port-Royal, südlich von Versailles bei Chevreuse gelegen, wurde 1204 als Zisterzienserinnenkloster (Zisterzienser/Zisterzienserinnen) gegründet. Unter der Leitung von J.-M. Arnauld (3.), 1602 Äbtissin (Me`re Ange´lique), begann 1608 eine auf innere Heiligung und ernste Frömmigkeit zielende Reform des Klosters, die bald auch ihre Mutter und fünf Schwestern zum Eintritt bewegte, darunter die spätere Me`re Agne`s (1636 Äbtissin). 1625 wurde das Kloster wegen des ungesunden Klimas na…


(309 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] Postel, Guillaume (25.3.1510 Dolerie bei Barenton, Normandie – 6.9.1581 Paris), studierte in Paris und erwarb vielfältige Sprachenkenntnis. Seine Teilnahme an einer franz. Delegation nach Konstantinopel (1535–1537) brachte ihn in Berührung mit dem Arab. Zurückgekehrt, publizierte er nicht nur eine »Grammatik des Arab.« (ca.1538), sondern mit »Linguarum duodecim characteribus« (1538) auch eine vergleichende Sprachstudie, in der seine späteren Ideen bereits angelegt waren: Ableitung…


(1,091 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] I. Definition – II. Historical Development I. Definition The term “Gallicanism” was created in the late 19th century for the state church system characteristic of France, a system that was rooted in the Middle Ages and remained in effect up to the French Revolution. Gallicanism's focus on national church politics goes back to the liberties of the Gallican church that were partly based on theological considerations but mainly on state church law. The aim was to limit the pope's power in the France of the ancien régime. Institutions advocating Gallicanism were the …
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