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Rivet, André

(184 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Andreas Rivetus; Jun 22, 1572, St. Maixent – Jan 1, 1651, Breda). After studying at the Reformed Academy in Orthez under L. Daneau and others, and in 1595 in La Rochelle, Rivet became chaplain to the de la Trémouille ducal house and minister in Thouars. In 1620 he accepted a call to Leiden University. In 1632 he was appointed by Frederik Hendrik of Orange to be the tutor of his son, the future King William II. His related activity as councillor and court preacher ended when he be…

Bartholomew's Day, Massacre of

(276 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1572) refers to the massacre of the Huguenots in the night before Bartholomew's Day during the wedding festivities of the Protestant Henri de Navarre with the Catholic Marguerite de Valois (Parisian Blood Wedding). It was triggered by the attempted assassination of the leader of the Huguenots and admiral, G. de Coligny. The bloody terror in Paris …

Port-Royal Abbey

(345 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] Port-Royal Abbey, south of Versailles near Chevreuse, was founded in 1204 as an abbey for Cistercian nuns (Cistercians). Under the leadership of J.-M. Arnauld, elected abbess in 1602 (Mère Angélique), a reform of the abbey dedicated to inward sanctification and serious piety began in 1608. The reform soon led her mother and her five sisters to join the abbey. One of her sisters was the later Mère Agnès, elected abbess in 1636. In 1625 the abbey moved to Paris on account of the unh…

Gallicanism

(1,091 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] I. Definition – II. Historical Development I. Definition The term “Gallicanism” was created in the late 19th century for the state church system characteristic of France, a system that was rooted in the Middle Ages and remained in effect up to the French Revolution. Gallicanism's focus on national church politics goes back to the liberties of the Gallican church that were partly based on theological considerations but mainly on state church law. The aim was to limit the pope's power in the France of the ancien régime. Institutions advocating Gallicanism were the …

Postel, Guillaume

(346 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Mar 25, 1510, Dolerie, near Barenton, Normandy – Sep 6, 1581, Paris) studied in Paris, where he became adept in many languages. His participation in a French delegation to Constantinople (1535–1537) brought him into contact with Arabic. On his return, he published not only a grammar of Arabic (c. 1538) but Linguarum duodecim characteribus (1538), a comparative study in which his later ideas were already laid out: the derivation of all languages from Hebrew, the need for Christian mission in the face ¶ of Islam, and knowledge of languages as an instrument for th…

Coligny, Gaspard de

(255 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Seigneur de Châtillon; Feb 16, 1519, Châtillon-sur-Loing – Aug 24, 1572, Paris) was admiral of France from 1552 onward, and governor of Picardy from 1555. A Calvinist sympathizer, he was captured by the Spanish at the battle of St. Quentin (1557) and held captive in the Netherlands. The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (Apr 3, 1559) enabled him to resume his diplomatic functions. By speaking out in defense of his persecuted co-religionists during the a…

Ferry, Paul

(182 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 24, 1591, Metz, France – Dec 28, 1669, Metz). After attending the Jesuit college in Metz, Ferry, from a leading Huguenot family (Huguenots) began his study of the liberal arts in 1607 ( artes liberales ) in La Rochelle and transferred in 1609 to Montauban, to study Protestant theology there until 1611. He was ordained a pastor in Metz on Jan 1, 1612. J.B. Bossuet attacked his Catéchisme général de la réformation et de la religion (1656), and the two were engaged in dialogue thereafter. Ferry eventually rejected Bossuet's attempts at denominational rapprochement. Ferr…

Church Polity

(28,214 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich | Dingel, Irene | Ohst, Martin | Weitlauff, Manfred | Pirson, Dietrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages – III. Reformation – IV. Modern Period – V. Present – VI. Practical Theology I. Early Church The church polity projected and in part realized in early Christianity is one of the most significant institutional inventions of Late Antiquity. Since it has survived into the present, with many modifications and variations, it also represents an element of continuity between the ancient world and the modern world. Church polity as used here means all the institutions affecting the external organization of early Ch…

Granvelle

(385 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian | Dingel, Irene
[German Version] 1. Nicolas Perrenot de (1484/85, Ornans, France – Aug 27, 1550, Augsburg) was a Burgundian official in the service of the Habsburgs, initially at the court of Besançon. After receiving the Dr.iur., Granvelle became chief councilor of the Franche-Comté in 1518. Charles V named him chief minister in 1524. After the death of his protector, Mercurino Arborio di Gattarina, Granvelle succeeded him as minister for the northern regions ¶ of the Empire in 1530. The emperor's great confidence in Granvelle, despite many accusations of bribery, made him one of…

Chandieu, Antoine de la Roche

(179 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (c. 1534, chateau Chabottes-en-Mâconnais – Feb 23, 1591, Geneva). Having already come into contact with Reformed thinking through his tutor in Paris, after law studies in Toulouse Chandieu went to Geneva, where he was won over for the Reformation by Calvin and Beza. From 1557 to 1562 he was pastor of the Protestant congregation in Paris and he took part in the first general synod in 1559, also participating in the preparation of the confession a…

Daillé, Jean

(167 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dallaeus; Jan 1, 1594, Châtellerault – Apr 15, 1670, Paris), Reformed theologian. After studying philosophy in Châtellerault and Poitiers, Daillé turned to theology in 1612 in Saumur. As the tutor of the grandchildren of P. Duplessis-Mornay in Saumur, he became friends with the professors of the academy and traveled with his students through Western …

Cavalier, Jean

(150 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Nov 28, 1681, Ribaute-les-Tavernes – May 17, 1740, Chelsea). First a shepherd, then a baker's apprentice, Cavalier fled to Geneva in 1701 for faith reasons. Already in the following year, he stepped forward as a “prophet” and military leader of the Camisards who were secretly gathering in the Cévennes for armed resistance. While the counter-measures of the marshal of Montrevel proved ineffective, his successor Villars succeeded in subduing Cava…
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