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Toussain (Tossanus)

(485 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann | Dingel, Irene
[German Version] 1. Peter (Tossanus; 1499, St. Laurent, Lorraine – Oct 5, 1573, Montbéliard), canon in Metz after 1515. His attempt to preach the Reformation in Metz was unsuccessful. In 1535 Tossanus was charged with continuing the Reformation of the Württemberg count of Montbéliard (Mömpelgard), begun by G. Farel. The introduction of the Württemberg church order of 1536 and then the order of 1559 created difficulties, since Tossanus and his colleagues favored the Swiss Reformation. Negotiations le…

Languet, Hubert

(185 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (1518, Vitteaux, France - Sep 30, 1581, Antwerp, Belgium), studied law in Poitiers and earned a doctorate in Padua. He was won over to the Reformation after reading Melanchthon's Loci communes, whereupon he went to Wittenberg in 1549 to meet the praeceptor. The latter's recommendation to the councilor of Electoral Saxony, Ulrich von Mordeisen, enabled him to enter the service of August I, Elector of Saxony (until 1577). Diplomatic missions led him, among other places, to Paris and to the imperial court in Vienna. He was …


(3,133 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene | Butler, Jon | Weber, Édith
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Music I. Church History 1. Europe The term Huguenot – whose etymology is unclear, although it probably traces back to the French eyguenot (cf. Ger. Eidgenossen) attested since 1520 – surfaces in relation to the Amboise conspiracy in 1560 and soon also found entry – in addition to the otherwise customary designation of French Protestants as adherents of the “supposedly reformed religion” ( religion prétendue réformée, R.P.R.) – into official texts. As early as the 1520s and 1530s, under the influence of the biblical humanism…

Staffort Book

(190 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (1599). The Staffort Book is witness to the change of confessional allegiance of Margrave Ernst Friedrich v. Baden-Durlach, one of the three sons of Margrave Charles II, on whose behalf the guardians Louis, elector palatine, Philip Louis, count palatine of Neuburg, and Duke Louis of Württemberg had signed the Formula of Concord after the margrave’s death. The book, printed at Schloß Staffort near Durlach, consisted – in its larger version – of a rejection of the Formula of Concord…


(559 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] The Camisards were Protestants in southern France who, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1686 (Huguenots), secretly formed armed bands in the Cévennes region, the “desert,” to fight for the freedom and rights of their suppressed church in the face of harsh persecution. The term “Camisard” probably derives from the camisia (“shirt”) worn over their clothing during night raids, which were therefore called camisades. The movement, which at times appeared fanatical, survived until 1711; especially when its followers were being pu…

Dupin, Louis Ellies

(172 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Jun 17, 1657, Paris – Jun 6, 1719, Paris) received his Dr.Theol. from the Sorbonne in 1684 and became professor at the Collège Royal in Paris. His signature to the “Cas de conscience” in sympathy with Jansenism in 1703 cost him his chair and brought him expulsion to Châtellerault. He recanted (1704) and was thus able to return to Paris, but not to his chair. In …

Du Cange, Charles Dufresne

(186 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1610, Amiens – Oct 23, 1688, Paris). After a humanist education at the Jesuit college in Amiens and law studies at the University of Orléans, Du Cange became a parliamentary advocate in Paris in 1631, but soon returned to Amiens. ¶ There he purchased the office of trésorier in 1645, which allowed him to devote himself to his historical and philosophical studies. He continued these in Paris in 1668 after an outbreak of the plague in Amiens. As an aut…

Bochart, Samuel

(146 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (May 30, 1599, Rouen – May 16, 1667, Caen) studied philosophy in Sedan and theology in Saumur as well as in Leiden, where he devoted himself to Arabic. From 1625 he was a pastor in Caen. His dispute with the Jesuit François Véron (Sep 22 – Oct 3, 1628) and the publication of the proceedings made him well known, and the release of his Geographia sacra even more so. An invitation to the court of Christina of Sweden in 1652 gave him the opportunity to evaluate the Arabic manuscripts of the royal library for his Hierozoicon. In 1661 he got into contr…

Duplessis-Mornay, Philippe

(292 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Philippe de Mornay, Seigneur du Plessis-Marly, Baron de La Forêt-sur-Sèvre; Nov 5, 1549, Buhy-en-Vexin – Nov 11, 1623, La Forêt-sur-Sèvre). After his studies – with P. Ramus and others – Duplessis-Mornay traveled through western Europe (1568–1572), on the basis of which he published a report in which he set out France's need for an anti-H…

Amyraut, Moïse

(212 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Sep 1596, Bourgueil, Touraine – Jan 8, 1664, Saumur) studied law at Poitiers and theology at Saumur (1618–1621). In 1626, after a brief stay in London and an initial pastorate at St. Aignan, he became pastor and in 1633 professor at Saumur. His doctrine of hypothetical universalism ( Traité de la prédestination) provoked violent controversy. It is based on the principle that God wills the salvation of all, insofar as they have faith. God's will, however, is frustrated by hum…

Jacquelot (Jaquelot), Isaac

(207 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1647, Vassy – Oct 20, 1708, Berlin). Jacquelot succeeded his father as Protestant minister in Vassy; after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 (France: III, 1; Huguenots), he took refuge in Heidelberg. In 1686 he became pastor of the French congregation in The Hague. His Avis sur le tableau du socinianisme (1690) brought him into conflict with P. Jurieu, so that he withdrew to Basel. In 1702 he was called to Berlin by Frederick I; he served as court chaplain there until his death. In his writings, he argued with suc…

Huet (Huetius), Pierre Daniel

(233 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 8, 1620, Caen – Jan 26, 1721, Paris). Huet was the early orphaned son of a Calvinist who converted to Catholicism. After attending the Jesuit College he studied law in Caen. He shared an interest in Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, and geography with S. Bochart, whom he accompanied to the Swedish court in 1652. In 1668, he published a manuscript by Origen on the Gospel of Matthew, which he had discovered there. But he had already returned to Paris by 1653. In 1662, he founded an academ…


(1,430 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
1. Concept “Huguenot” from the 16th to 18th centuries was the originally pejorative term for French Calvinists. It probably derived from eyguenot (“oath-companion, confederate”, cf. the German word for the Swiss,  Eidgenosse), attested from 1520. Reformation sympathizers were initially called évangéliques or  luthériens in official documents, but after the 1560 Amboise Conspiracy, the term “Huguenot” was also used, defined as followers of the “purportedly reformed religion” (French  religion prétendue réformée, R.P.R.).Irene Dingel 2. Establishment of c…
Date: 2019-10-14

Orte des Protestantismus [Hinzugefügt 2017]

(7,012 words)

Author(s): Becker, Judith | Jürgens, Henning P. | Herausgeber: Judith Becker | Hofmann, Andrea | Dingel, Irene
1. Allgemeines 1.1. GrundlagenDer Protestantismus kennt, wie alle monotheistischen Religionen und christl. Konfessionen, für sein Selbstverständnis zentrale Orte ( Orte der Religionen). Diese sind in der Regel nicht als »hl.« definiert, sondern als Orte, an denen sich die Erinnerung an bestimmte für die Konfession grundlegende Ereignisse festmacht. Es sind Orte, die zur Veranschaulichung und Erinnerung dienen; sie sind jedoch – zumindest in der theologischen Theorie – immer dem Wort als Mitte der theologischen Leh…
Date: 2019-11-19


(1,350 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
1. BegriffH. war vom 16. bis zum 18. Jh. eine ursprünglich pejorative Bezeichnung für die franz. Reformierten ( Calvinismus). Der Terminus geht wohl auf das seit 1520 belegte eyguenot (»Eidgenossen«) zurück und ist seit der Verschwörung von Amboise 1560 – neben der Benennung als Anhänger der »vorgeblich reformierten Religion« (franz. religion prétendue réformée, R.P. R.) – auch in offiziellen Texten zu finden, nachdem man zu Anfang die reformatorisch Gesinnten évangéliques oder luthériens genannt hatte.Irene Dingel2. Formierung der kirchlichen InstitutionBereits in den …
Date: 2019-11-19


(309 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] Postel, Guillaume (25.3.1510 Dolerie bei Barenton, Normandie – 6.9.1581 Paris), studierte in Paris und erwarb vielfältige Sprachenkenntnis. Seine Teilnahme an einer franz. Delegation nach Konstantinopel (1535–1537) brachte ihn in Berührung mit dem Arab. Zurückgekehrt, publizierte er nicht nur eine »Grammatik des Arab.« (ca.1538), sondern mit »Linguarum duodecim characteribus« (1538) auch eine vergleichende Sprachstudie, in der seine späteren Ideen bereits angelegt waren: Ableitung…


(403 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann | Dingel, Irene
[English Version] 1.Peter (Tossanus), (1499 St. Laurent, Lothringen – 5.10.1573 Montbéliard), seit 1515 Kanonikus in Metz. Versuche, dort ev. zu predigen, schlugen fehl. 1535 wurde T. mit der Fortführung der von G. Farel begonnenen Reformation der württembergischen Grafschaft Montbéliard (Mömpelgard) beauftragt. Die Einführung der württembergischen Kirchenordnung von 1536, desgleichen der von 1559, verursachte Schwierigkeiten, da T. und seine Kollegen der Schweizer Reformation zuneigten. Verhandlu…


(163 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] (Rivetus), Andre´ (Andreas; 22.6.1572 St. Maixent – 7.1.1651 Breda), wurde nach seinem Studium an der ref. Akademie in Orthez, u.a. bei L. Daneau, sowie in La Rochelle 1595 Kaplan des Duc de la Trémouille und Pfarrer in Thouars. 1620 folgte er einem Ruf an die Universität Leiden. 1632 wurde er durch Friedrich Heinrich von Oranien als Erzieher seines Sohnes, des späteren Königs Wilhelm II., verpflichtet. Seine damit verbundene Tätigkeit als Rat und Hofprediger endete mit der Überna…


(369 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] (hugenottische Akademie). Entstehung, Aufstieg und Blüte der Akademie von S. sind eng mit dem Namen Ph. Duplessis-Mornays verbunden. Im März 1593 erhielt der Gouverneur von S. von König Heinrich IV. den ihn zur Gründung ermächtigenden Bescheid, der zus. mit dem Edikt von Nantes (1598; Hugenotten: I.,1.) die Voraussetzungen für die Einrichtung einer calvinistischen Ausbildungsstätte in jener zu den hugenottischen Sicherheitsplätzen gehörenden Stadt schuf. Die Akademie bestand aus …


(299 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] Pufendorf, Samuel Frhr. v. (8.1.1632 Dorfchemnitz – 26.10.1694 Berlin). Nach dem Besuch der Fürstenschule in Grimma (1645–1650) studierte P. 1650–1658 in Leipzig und Jena, bevor er eine Stelle als Hauslehrer bei dem schwedischen Gesandten Peter Julius Coyet in Kopenhagen antrat. Sein während dänischer Gefangenschaft (1658) vf., 1660 publiziertes und Karl Ludwig von der Pfalz gewidmetes Werk »Elementorum Jurisprudentiae Universalis libri duo« trug P. 1661 eine Berufung nach Heidelber…
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