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Carneiscus

(86 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Καρνεΐσκος; Karneískos). Pupil of  Epicurus, originating in Asia Minor, perhaps from Cos or Rhodes. In his work Φιλίστας ( Philístas), comprising at least two volumes, he wrote on the Epicurean concept of friendship. The end of the 2nd volume (extant in PHercul. 1027) is dedicated to one Zopyrus, otherwise unknown. C. expresses his disagreement with the Peripatetic philosopher  Praxiphanes, criticizing his writing on friendship for suggesting improper forms of relationship between friends.  Epicurean School Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography T. Dorandi,…

Polyaenus

(604 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύαινος/ Polýainos). [German version] [1] Epicurean, c. 300 BC One of the four 'masters' (καθηγεμόνες; kathēgemónes) of the Epicurean School (with Epicurus, Metrodorus and Hermarchus). B. at Lampsacus (year unknown), d. at Athens in 278/7 BC. Epicurus inaugurated an annual festival in his honour in the month of Metageitnion. P. came into contact with Epicurus during the latter's sojourn at Lampsacus (311/10-307/6 BC), and thereafter devoted himself to philosophy. At first, he excelled as a mathematician; re…

Cartonnage

(132 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] Cardboard or papier mâché made from used pieces of papyrus for making mummy bandages (for humans or animals). Common in Egypt during the Ptolemaic period (find spots: necropoleis of Ghoran, Madīnet al-Nuḥās, Al-Ḥība); a number of examples can be dated to the end of the Augustan period (find spots: Abū Ṣīr al-Malaq). Numerous 3rd-cent. BC fragments of Greek literary texts (e.g. Callimachus, Menander, Plato; list in [1]) and copies of documents (petitions or submissions/ enteúxeis to the Ptolemaic court) have been recovered from dismantled cartonnage. Dorandi, Tizia…

Copy

(2,225 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] A. Introductory comments Copy should be understood in two ways: on the one hand, it refers to the copying of a literary work beginning with the first version and throughout the various writing phases, including the alteration of the text into book form. On the other hand, it refers to the copies of a book intended for its systematic, ‘publisher driven’ dissemination. Copy thus refers to both the working methods of ancient authors and to the realm of book production. Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) [German version] B. Copying-techniques There are only few indirect records a…

Herculanean papyri

(884 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] A. Definition Papyri with Latin and Greek texts found during the Bourbon excavations in the middle of the 18th cent. in a villa near  Herculaneum (with site map). These were part of the library of the poet and philosopher  Philodemus of Gadara, who had gone from Athens to Italia during the period 80-70 BC and maintained a friendly relationship there with L.  Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus, the owner of the villa in Herculaneum. In this luxurious villa, Philodemus collected an ext…

Manuale

(138 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] Portable wooden reading desk. Manuale was probably originally an adjectival attribute of lectorium. Substanticised it then took on the meaning of (reading) desk [1]. The sole written reference is found in Mart. 14,84. A manuale is illustrated on two reliefs from Neumagen [1. fig. 15-16] and in Vergil's Codex Romanus (Cod. Vaticanus Latinus 3867, VI). Two kinds of reading desk are attested: one with a base and one without. Only the latter can be defined as a manuale as such. This is a wooden board with ends so bent as to hold in depressions both rolled-up e…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Correction marks

(412 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] An ancient text could be corrected in at least two ways: a) a διορθωτής ( diorthōtḗs), a professional c orrector, collated the copy with the original. This intervention was sometimes indicated by the monogram δι = δι(ώρθωται), ‘corrected’ [1. 15. n. 85,13] ( Publication). b) A reader (not necessarily a professional corrector, but often a lay man) collated the copy with another sample. Two or more correctors could work on the same copy [3]. A wrong correction was indicated as ἀποδιόρθωμα ( apodiórthōma) (PSI 12, 1287,11-14). The intervention of an ancient correcto…

Anaxarchus

(169 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (᾿Ανάξαρχος, Anáxarchos) of Abdera. Democritean philosopher ( Democriteans, c. 380-320 BC). He accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaign to the East. After Alexander's death, A. was taken prisoner and then pounded to death in a mortar by Nicocreon, the tyrant of Salamis on Cyprus, with whom he had quarrelled. In the ancient records, A.'s attitude towards Alexander the Great wavers between adoration and irony. A. was the author of a treatise Περὶ βασιλείας ( Perì basileías), of which only two fragments are preserved (fr. 65-66). The assessments of h…

Idomeneus

(647 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἰδομενεύς; Idomeneús). [German version] [1] Commander of the Cret. troops at Troy Son of  Deucalion, grandson of  Minos; the name is indirectly attested as early as in Linear B [1]. I. is one of  Helena's suitors (today fr. 204,56ff. M-W) and a guest of Menelaus (Hom. Il. 3,230-233). He commands the rather large Cretan contingent (80 ships) in the Trojan campaign, assisted by his loyal follower  Meriones (Hom. Il. 2,645-652); he is the oldest Greek at Troy after Nestor, still fit for action ( aristeia in Il. 13); I. belongs to the inner circle of Greek army leaders, but does n…

Philonides

(298 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Φιλωνίδης; Philōnídēs). [German version] [1] Attic poet of Old Comedy Attic Old Comedy poet, father of the comic poet Nicochares [1. test. 1, 2]. The supplementation of his name on the list of victors at the Dionysia is insecure [1. test. 3]. Three play titles survive - Ἀπήνη ( Apḗnē / 'The Chariot'), Κόθορνοι ('The Cothurni'), Φιλέταιρος ( Philétairos / 'The Good Comrade') - as do 17 brief fragments, most from 'The Cothurni'. The play Προαγών ( Proagṓn / 'The Preliminary Contest'), sometimes attributed to P., is probably by Aristophanes, who had it produced under P.'s …

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Lesbonax

(349 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Λεσβῶναξ; Lesbônax). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian Greek grammarian, dates uncertain (perhaps before the end of the 2nd cent. AD). Author of a work on rhetorical figures (Περὶ σχημάτων; Perì schēmátōn) that is extant in two different excerpts (there is no basis for equating him with the orator L. of Mytilene). In it, L. describes a series of grammatical peculiarities ( schḗmata, ‘figures’), i.e. changes in the normal form of speech, which are demonstrated with examples primarily from Homer. There is no Atticist influence at all: the principal sou…

Phaedrus

(2,008 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] I. Greek (Φαῖδρος; Phaîdros). [German version] [I 1] 5th cent. BC Son of Pythocles, from the Attic deme of Myrrhinus, born probably c. 450 BC. Accused of participation in the profanation of the Eleusinian Mysteria and the mutilatation of the herms, P. went into exile in 415 BC. His property was confiscated (And. 1,15; ML 79,112-115). By 404 BC at the latest, he had returned to Athens; he subsequently married a cousin (Lys. 19,15). Died before 393. Participant in the meeting in Plato's Protagoras (315c), interlocutor of Socrates in Plato's Phaedrus and first speaker in his Sy…

Leonteus

(206 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Λεοντεύς; Leonteús, ‘lion’). [German version] [1] Leader of the Lapiths' contingent at Troy Son of Coronus. With Polypoetes he leads the contingent of the Lapithae at Troy. Together, they also defend the Greek camp and participate in the funerary games for Patroclus (Hom. Il. 2,745ff.; 12,128ff.; 23,837ff.). Michel, Raphael (Basle) Bibliography H. W. Stoll, s.v. L., Roscher 2, 1944-1945. [German version] [2] Of Lampsacus, student of Epicurus L. of Lampsacus, one of the most important students of Epicurus. L. and his wife Themista got to know Epicurus during …

Scheda

(204 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] ( schida, scida) has various meanings in Latin authors: (1) a sheet or piece of papyrus or parchment (Pugillares) for notes or short messages (Cic. Att. 1,20,7; Quint. Inst. 1,8,19; Mart. 4,89,4; CGL IV 422,52; V 243,10 and 482,57;  cf. [1. 4920]). (2) In Late Antiquity s./ schedula is the term for a 'rough draft' of a literary work; cf. Isid. Etym. 6,14,8 “scheda est quod adhuc emendatur, et necdum in libris redactum est” ("scheda describes a text which still has to be corrected and is not yet finished"; the interpretation i…

Timocrates

(593 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Τιμοκράτης/ Timokrátēs). [German version] [1] From Sparta, advisor of Cnemus, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC Spartan, one of the three advisors of the nauarchos Cnemus who, following the defeat off the Acarnanian coast in 429 BC, were supposed to make strategic and logistical preparations for a new naval battle (Thuc. 2,85,1). T. committed suicide after the devastating defeat in 429 against the Athenian fleet near Naupactus (Thuc. 2,92,3). Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Rhodos, legate of Pharnabazus [2], c. 400 BC Rhodian. In the winter of 396/5 BC…

Pythocles

(168 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Πυθοκλῆς; Pythoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian rhetor, 4th cent. BC Athenian rhetor, son of Pythodorus from the deme Cedi ( c. 380-318 BC), (syn)trierarch multiple times (IG II2 1615,12; 1622,314), an opponent of Demosthenes [2] after 343; he spoke unsuccessfully in 338/7 against Demosthenes holding the epitáphios for those killed at Chaeronea (Dem. Or. 18,285); possibly executed in 318 as a follower of Phocion (Plut. Phocion 35,5). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 485  Develin, Nr. 2682  LGPN 2, s. v. P. (17). [German version] [2] Epicurean, c. 300 BC Student …

Kepos

(120 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] The philosopher Epicurus owned a house in the Attic deme of Melite (Diog. Laert. 10,17) and a garden (κῆπος; kêpos), the seat of his school (Cic. Fin. 5,1,3; Sen. Ep. 21,10; Plin. HN 19,50; Diog. Laert. 10,11). The localization of this garden is disputed. It was either outside the city between the Dipylon Gate and the Academy (Heliodorus, Aethiopica 1,16,5) [2], or in the city itself ( in ipsa urbe, Plin. HN 19,50), adjoining the house in the deme of Melite or very close by [1]. Epicurus; Epicurean School Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography 1 E. Wycherley, The Garden of E…

Metrodorus

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος/ Metródōros). [German version] [1] M. of Chios Democritan philosopher, 5th/4th cent. BC Democritan philosopher ( Democritus [1]) of the 5th-4th cent. BC who recognised Fullness and Emptiness, Being and Non-Being as the first principles. This orthodoxy, however, does not go beyond the fundamental theoretical views of Atomism: M. is said to have had his own views in other matters (70 A 3 DK). M. propounds the uncreatedness of the universe (τὸ πᾶν) in the Eleatic manner ( Eleatic School) because a c…
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