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Gordium

(347 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Xenophon | Alexander | Celts | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Pergamum | Pompeius Pre-classical city near Yassıhüyük west-south-west of Ankara on the eastern bank of the Sangarius, located at a ford of the road from Pessinus to Ancyra (ruins visible). Apparently founded as a residence by its eponym, Gordius, the first Phrygian king. Excavations uncovered rich royal tombs in wooden chambers under tumuli (cf. map), further a citadel which was fortified in the 8th and 6th cents. BC, later to be destroyed b…

Cibyra

(230 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
(Κίβυρα; Kíbyra). [German version] [1] Town in Phrygia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Lycii, Lycia Important town in southern Phrygia (modern Gölhisar, formerly Horzum) on the border with Lycia. C. belonged to a tetrapolis with Bubon, Balbura, and Oenoanda, in which it had two votes, the other three member only one vote each; the tetrapolis was dissolved in 84 BC by L.  Licinius Murena, and C. incorporated into the Roman province of Asia (Str. 13,4,17); from about 56 to 49 BC, it was part of…

Cyzicus

(461 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Byzantium | | Asia Minor | Colonization | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Rome | Delian League | Education / Culture (Κύζικος; Kýzikos). City in Mysia on the south coast of the  Propontis on the isthmus of the Arktonnesos (Kapıdağ) peninsula; the modern Balkız, to the east of Erdek. C. owed its prosperity to its double harbour and large territory (cf. the description with the city's location at Str. 12,8,11). From the beginning of coinage down to …

Ceramon agora

(54 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Κεράμων ἀγορά; Kerámōn agorá). A ‘populated town’ between Peltae and  Caystrou pedion, ‘the last town (in Phrygia) in the direction of Mysia’, only mentioned in Xen. An. 1,2,11; localization impossible. Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. K., RE 11, 254f.

Eumeneia

(270 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
(Εὐμένεια; Euméneia). [German version] [1] Town in the south of Phrygia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Pergamum Town in the south of Phrygia (modern Işıklı), founded by Attalus II in the name of his brother Eumenes II (Steph. Byz. s.v. E.), close to the Maeander at the foot of a mountain. The numerous inscriptions from E. and its surroundings are mainly from the Roman period and are mostly tomb inscriptions; for the necropoleis that were intensively depleted by the farmers were located on…

Cabalis

(129 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] (Καβαλίς; Kabalís, Lat. Cabalia). Landscape in Northern Lycia, north-west of the Milyas mountains, south of the Cibyratis, and bordered by the Taurus (Str. 13,15,1) where Lake Cabalitis could be found between Lagbe and Tyraeon (Söğüt Gölü; dry today; here, the inscription documenting the ethnicon Kabaleús was found, cf. [1. 1032]). Hdt. 7,77 refers to the inhabitants as Maeonians; Str. 13,17,1 notes, that the C. was under the rule of Lydian Cibyrans. According to Plin. HN 5,101,7 and Ptol. 5,3,8, the C. or Kabalía comprised the cities of  Oenoanda,  Balbura, a…

Lagbe

(107 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Λάγβη; Lágbē). Town in north-east Lycia, near modern Alifahrettin; it dominated the small, high plain north of Lake Cabalitis (the former Söğüt Gölü, today dried up) and belonged to the territory of Cibyra. Part of the Roman province of Asia (Caria province from Diocletian on), plundered by Manlius Vulso during his campaign of 189 BC (Liv. 38,15,2). Epigraphical evidence attests a cult of Artemis Lagbene and the existence of a private estate. Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) Bibliography Chr. Naour, Tyriaion en Caba…

Colossae

(175 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Xenophon | Education / Culture (Κολοσσαί; Kolossaí). City in south-west Phrygia, 4 km north-north-west of Honaz, significant already in the 5th cent. BC (Xen. An. 1,2,6; cf. Plin. HN 5,145), 15 km east-south-east of Laodicea, on the road through the Lycus valley between Sardeis and Celaenae. Coins have been attested from the late Hellenistic period onwards. The city was famous for its wool industry (Str. 12,8,16). St. Paul's lett…

Midaeum

(130 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] (Μίδαιον/ Mídaion; Μιδάειον/ Midáeion). City named after its legendary founder king Midas (on coins from M.). Near the River Tembris (Porsuk Çayı; on coins from M.) in Phrygia Epictetus (Str. 12,8,12) at Karahöyük on a high hill. Inhabited from Phrygian until Byzantine times. To the east of Dorylaeum on the road to Pessinus (Tab. Peut. 9,3). As early as the 5th cent. BC mentioned by Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 17). Sextus Pompeius was captured here in 36 BC (Cass. Dio 49,18,4). M. was in the conventus of Synnada (Plin. HN 5,105). It minted coins from Augustus until Phili…

Ipsus

(176 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni (Ἴψος; Ípsos). Town near the Turkish village of Çayırbağı (formerly Sipsin, retaining its ancient name) near Afyon in central Phrygia. Famous as the site of the battle in 301 BC in which  Lysimachus and  Seleucus put an end to the plans of  Antigonus [1] and his son Demetrius to retain the state created by Alexander the Great (Plut. Demetrius 29f.). I. has been located on a hill with Phrygian remains and Byzantine walls in the …

Celaenae

(201 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander (Κελαιναί; Kelainaí). Former main town of Phrygia (Liv. 38,13), later founded again as  Apamea [2] by  Antiochus [2] I (Str. 12,8,15); modern Dinar. In C. stood a palace of Xerxes (Xen. An. 1,2,9) with a   parádeisos (‘game reserve’) of Cyrus (Xen. An. 1,2,7); it is named after Celaenus, a son of Poseidon, venerated in C. because of frequent earthquakes (Str. 12,8,18; but the coins of C. depict Zeus and Dionysus Kelaineus). …

Dindymum

(119 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] (Δίνδυμον; Díndymon). Mountain on the border between Galatia and Phrygia (modern Arayit or Günüzü Dağı), 1,820 m high, near the spring of the Sangarius (Claud. in Eutropium 2,262f., cf. Str. 12,3,7). Some ancient authors derived the mountain's name from its ‘double’ or ‘forked’ appearance (Nonnus, Dion. 48,855). D. was famous for the cult of Cybele, whose temple was located in the nearby town of Pessinus and who also bore the name Dindyménē (Str. 12,5,3), here and elsewhere. Attis was buried there (Paus. 1,4,5, who calls this mountain Ágdistis). A base of Alexius' …

Berecyntes

(186 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] Mythical tribe from the region inhabited by the Phryges in Greek and Roman times, including the area known as Galatia in Hellenistic times ( Berecyntos, ‘a castellum in Phrygia on the Sangarius’: Serv. Aen. 6,784). Used as a synonym for ‘Phrygian’ by poets of classical (e.g. Aeschyl. Niobe), Hellenistic (Callim. H. 3, 246), and Roman times (e.g. Hor. Carm. 1,18; 3,19; Ov. Met. 11,106), and also by prose writers (from Stesimbrotus, Str. 10,3,20, to Aug. Civ. 2,5,7). However, Str. 12,8,21, maintains: ‘There …

Kolossai

(145 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Bildung | Christentum | Theater | Xenophon (Κολοσσαί). Stadt in SW-Phrygia 4 km nordnordwestl. von Honaz, bedeutend schon im 5. Jh. v.Chr. (Xen. an. 1,2,6; vgl. Plin. nat. 5,145), 15 km ostsüdöstl. von Laodikeia, an der Straße durch das Lykos-Tal zw. Sardeis und Kelainai. Mz. sind seit späthell. Zeit nachgewiesen. Die Stadt war berühmt für ihre Wollindustrie (Strab. 12,8,16). Der Brief des Paulus an die Kolosser bezeugt eine frühe Christengemein…

Lagbe

(96 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Lykioi, Lykia (Λάγβη). Stadt in NO-Lykia nahe h. Alifahrettin, die die kleine Hochebene nördl. des Sees Cabalitis dominierte (den früheren Söğüt Gölü, h. ausgetrocknet) und zum Territorium von Kibyra gehörte. Teil der röm. Prov. Asia (seit Diocletianus in der Prov. Caria), durch Manlius Vulso während seines Feldzuges 189 v.Chr. geplündert (Liv. 38,15,2). Inschr. belegen den Kult der Artemis Lagbene und die Existenz eines privaten Anwesens. Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) Bibliography Chr. Naour, Tyriaion en Cabali…

Dindymon

(110 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[English version] (Δίνδυμον). Berg an der Grenze zw. Galatia und Phrygia (h. Arayit oder Günüzü Dağı), 1820 m hoch, nahe der Sangarios-Quelle (Claud. in Eutropium 2,262f., vgl. Strab. 12,3,7). Manche ant. Autoren leiteten nach der äußeren Erscheinung des Berges seinen Namen von “doppelt”, “gegabelt” ab (Nonn. Dion. 48,855). Berühmt war der D. durch den Kult der Kybele, deren Tempel in der nahegelegenen Stadt Pessinus stand und die hier wie anderswo den Beinamen Dindyménē trug (Strab. 12,5,3). Attis wurde hier begraben (Paus. 1,4,5, der diesen Berg Ágdistis nennt). Stützpunkt Al…

Kyzikos

(415 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Attisch-Delischer Seebund | Bildung | Byzantion, Byzanz | Kleinasien | Kolonisation | Peloponnesischer Krieg | Pergamon | Perserkriege | Roma | Theater | Straßen (Κύζικος, Cyzicus). Stadt in Mysia an der Südküste der Propontis auf dem Isthmos der Halbinsel Arktonnesos (Kapıdağ), h. Balkız, im Osten von Erdek. K. verdankte seinen Wohlstand dem Doppelhafen und dem großen Territorium (vgl. die Beschreibung mit Lage der Stadt bei Strab. 12,8,11). Seit Aufkommen der M…

Kabalis

(118 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[English version] (Καβαλίς, lat. Cabalia). Landschaft in Nordlykia, nordwestl. vom Milyas-Bergland, im Süden der Kibyratis, begrenzt vom Tauros (Strab. 13,15,1), wo zw. Lagbe und Tyriaion der See Kabalitis lag (Söğüt Gölü, h. trocken; von dort die das Ethnikon Kabaleús bezeugende Inschr., vgl. [1. 1032]). Hdt. 7,77 nennt die Einwohner Maionier, Strab. 13,17,1 stellt fest, daß K. von den lyd. Kibyraten beherrscht werde. Nach Plin. nat. 5,101,7 und Ptol. 5,3,8 umfaßte die Cabalia bzw. Kabalía die Städte Oinoanda, Balbura und Bubon. Liv. 38,15,2 erwähnt die K. im Zusam…

Kibyra

(202 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
(Κίβυρα). [English version] [1] Stadt in Phrygien Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Lykioi, Lykia | Theater Bed. südphryg. Stadt (h. Gölhisar, ehemals Horzum) an der Grenze zu Lykia, Mitglied einer Tetrapolis mit Bubon, Balbura und Oinoanda, in der K. zwei Stimmen, die anderen drei dagegen nur je eine Stimme hatten, bis die Tetrapolis 84 v.Chr. von L. Licinius Murena aufgelöst und K. mit der röm. Prov. Asia vereinigt wurde (Strab. 13,4,17); etwa in den J. 56 bis 49 Teil der Prov. Cilicia. Seit Dioc…

Keramon agora

(48 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Xenophon (Κεράμων ἀγορά). Eine ‘bevölkerte Stadt’ zw. Peltai und Kaystru pedion, ‘die letzte Stadt (in Phrygia) gegen Mysia’, nur von Xen. an. 1,2,11 erwähnt; Lokalisierung unmöglich. Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. K., RE 11, 254f.
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