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Metropolis

(1,797 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meriç, Recep (Izmir) | Et al.
(μητρόπολις/ mētrópolis, literally ‘mother city’). [German version] [1] Mother city of colonies in the era of the ‘Great’ Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC) Since the so-called Great Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC, Colonization IV, cf. the overview there), in numerous Greek communities an oikistḗs (‘founder’) and further ápoikoi (‘settlers’, ‘colonists’) were selected from the citizenry of the future metropolis as starting point for a colonisation enterprise (or they left on their own initiative) and entrusted with the establishment of an apoikía outside the …

Caystru pedion

(201 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] [1] River plain of the Caystrus (Καΰστρου/Καΰστριον πεδίον; Kaÿ́strou/ Kaÿ́strion pedion). River plain of the  Caystrus [1] from the plain of Kilbis on the upper course of the river (Κιλβιανὸν πεδίον, Str. 13,4,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Assos) to the west; on its middle or rather lower course was the Ἄσιος λειμών ( Ásios leimṓn; ‘Asian meadow’) with flocks of wild geese, cranes, and swans (Hom. Il. 2,461; Cic. Orat. 163; Str. 14,1,45). Mount Tmolus afforded a view on the surrounding plains, including the Caystrou pedion (CP) (Str. 13,4,5…

Lagbe

(107 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Λάγβη; Lágbē). Town in north-east Lycia, near modern Alifahrettin; it dominated the small, high plain north of Lake Cabalitis (the former Söğüt Gölü, today dried up) and belonged to the territory of Cibyra. Part of the Roman province of Asia (Caria province from Diocletian on), plundered by Manlius Vulso during his campaign of 189 BC (Liv. 38,15,2). Epigraphical evidence attests a cult of Artemis Lagbene and the existence of a private estate. Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) Bibliography Chr. Naour, Tyriaion en Caba…

Colossae

(175 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Xenophon | Education / Culture (Κολοσσαί; Kolossaí). City in south-west Phrygia, 4 km north-north-west of Honaz, significant already in the 5th cent. BC (Xen. An. 1,2,6; cf. Plin. HN 5,145), 15 km east-south-east of Laodicea, on the road through the Lycus valley between Sardeis and Celaenae. Coins have been attested from the late Hellenistic period onwards. The city was famous for its wool industry (Str. 12,8,16). St. Paul's lett…

Caystrus

(224 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] [1] River in Lydia River in Lydia (Καΰστριος; Kaÿ́strios: Hom. Il. 2,461; Hdt. 5,100; Κάϋστρος; Káÿstros: Str. 13,3,2; Arr. Anab. 5,6,4; Mela 1,88), modern Küçük Menderes (‘Little Maeander’); it rises on the southern slopes of Mount Tmolus above Coloë (modern Keles near Kiraz); it flows through the plain of Kilbis, then through the  Caystrou pedion [1], absorbs from the right tributaries from Mount Tmolus, from the left those from the Mesogis mountains (modern Cevizli dağı) (Plin. HN 5,115), and…

Apamea

(592 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
(Ἀπάμεια; Apámeia). [German version] [1] City in  Bithynia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pergamum | Education / Culture City in  Bithynia, 1 km south-east of present-day Mudanya on the Sea of Marmara; founded by Colophon; originally Brylleion; from shortly after 330 BC Myrleia. From 433/32 BC attested as belonging to the  Delian League; at the end of the 4th cent. BC under the rule of Mithridates II of Cius; for a time in the 3rd cent. BC a member of the koinon of Athena Ilias. In 202 BC conquered by Philip V and delivered to Prusias I; newly founded as A…

Cibyra

(230 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
(Κίβυρα; Kíbyra). [German version] [1] Town in Phrygia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Lycii, Lycia Important town in southern Phrygia (modern Gölhisar, formerly Horzum) on the border with Lycia. C. belonged to a tetrapolis with Bubon, Balbura, and Oenoanda, in which it had two votes, the other three member only one vote each; the tetrapolis was dissolved in 84 BC by L.  Licinius Murena, and C. incorporated into the Roman province of Asia (Str. 13,4,17); from about 56 to 49 BC, it was part of…

Cyzicus

(461 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Byzantium | | Asia Minor | Colonization | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Rome | Delian League | Education / Culture (Κύζικος; Kýzikos). City in Mysia on the south coast of the  Propontis on the isthmus of the Arktonnesos (Kapıdağ) peninsula; the modern Balkız, to the east of Erdek. C. owed its prosperity to its double harbour and large territory (cf. the description with the city's location at Str. 12,8,11). From the beginning of coinage down to …

Melissa

(817 words)

Author(s): Kowalzig, Barbara (Oxford) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
(Μέλισσα/ Mélissa, ‘bee’). Epithet of priestesses, name of nymphs and proper name, sometimes in aetiological myths. [German version] [1] Priestesses of Demeter Mélissai are the priestesses of Demeter (Pind. Fr. 158; Callim. H. 2,110; [1. no. 91]; Apollod. FGrH 244 F 89, on Paros), and in schol. Theoc. 15,94 of Persephone as well. The name probably derives from the association of bees and their behaviour, which was thought of as especially pure (Aristot. Hist. an. 4,535a 2 f.; schol. Pind. P. 4,106a), with idealised f…

Dindymum

(119 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] (Δίνδυμον; Díndymon). Mountain on the border between Galatia and Phrygia (modern Arayit or Günüzü Dağı), 1,820 m high, near the spring of the Sangarius (Claud. in Eutropium 2,262f., cf. Str. 12,3,7). Some ancient authors derived the mountain's name from its ‘double’ or ‘forked’ appearance (Nonnus, Dion. 48,855). D. was famous for the cult of Cybele, whose temple was located in the nearby town of Pessinus and who also bore the name Dindyménē (Str. 12,5,3), here and elsewhere. Attis was buried there (Paus. 1,4,5, who calls this mountain Ágdistis). A base of Alexius' …

Lycus

(2,142 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος; Lýkos). Mythology and religion: L. [1-9], historical persons: L. [10-13], rivers: L. [14-19]. [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. Katasterismoi 23), only Apollod. 3,111 mentions his translation to the Islands of the Blessed, possibly to differentiate him from L. [6], with whom he is connected by Hyg. Fab. 31, 76 and 157 in spite of the descent from Poseidon. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Prometheus and Celaeno Son of Prometheus and Celaeno [1], on whose tomb in th…

Berecyntes

(186 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] Mythical tribe from the region inhabited by the Phryges in Greek and Roman times, including the area known as Galatia in Hellenistic times ( Berecyntos, ‘a castellum in Phrygia on the Sangarius’: Serv. Aen. 6,784). Used as a synonym for ‘Phrygian’ by poets of classical (e.g. Aeschyl. Niobe), Hellenistic (Callim. H. 3, 246), and Roman times (e.g. Hor. Carm. 1,18; 3,19; Ov. Met. 11,106), and also by prose writers (from Stesimbrotus, Str. 10,3,20, to Aug. Civ. 2,5,7). However, Str. 12,8,21, maintains: ‘There …

Hierapolis

(374 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Ἱεράπολις; Hierápolis). [German version] [1] Important town in south-west Phrygia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Pergamum Important town in south-west Phrygia (as opposed to the town of same name in the ‘Pentapolis’ of central Phrygia) at the edge of the Lycus valley on the road in the Hermus valley from Sardis to Apamea, famous for its thermal springs whose water leaves white limestone terraces when evaporating; they gave the place its modern name Pa…

Cabalis

(129 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] (Καβαλίς; Kabalís, Lat. Cabalia). Landscape in Northern Lycia, north-west of the Milyas mountains, south of the Cibyratis, and bordered by the Taurus (Str. 13,15,1) where Lake Cabalitis could be found between Lagbe and Tyraeon (Söğüt Gölü; dry today; here, the inscription documenting the ethnicon Kabaleús was found, cf. [1. 1032]). Hdt. 7,77 refers to the inhabitants as Maeonians; Str. 13,17,1 notes, that the C. was under the rule of Lydian Cibyrans. According to Plin. HN 5,101,7 and Ptol. 5,3,8, the C. or Kabalía comprised the cities of  Oenoanda,  Balbura, a…

Lykos

(1,947 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος). Mythologie und Religion: L. [1-9], Historische Personen: L. [10-13], Flüsse: L. [14-19]. [English version] [1] Sohn des Poseidon und der Pleiade Kelaino Sohn des Poseidon und der Pleiade Kelaino [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. katasterismoi 23), nur Apollod. 3,111 erwähnt seine Entrückung auf die Inseln der Seligen, vielleicht, um ihn von L. [6], mit dem er von Hyg. fab. 31, 76 und 157 trotz der Abstammung von Poseidon zusammengebracht wird, zu differenzieren. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [English version] [2] Sohn des Prometheus und der Kelaino Sohn des Prometheus und der Kelaino…

Kabalis

(118 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[English version] (Καβαλίς, lat. Cabalia). Landschaft in Nordlykia, nordwestl. vom Milyas-Bergland, im Süden der Kibyratis, begrenzt vom Tauros (Strab. 13,15,1), wo zw. Lagbe und Tyriaion der See Kabalitis lag (Söğüt Gölü, h. trocken; von dort die das Ethnikon Kabaleús bezeugende Inschr., vgl. [1. 1032]). Hdt. 7,77 nennt die Einwohner Maionier, Strab. 13,17,1 stellt fest, daß K. von den lyd. Kibyraten beherrscht werde. Nach Plin. nat. 5,101,7 und Ptol. 5,3,8 umfaßte die Cabalia bzw. Kabalía die Städte Oinoanda, Balbura und Bubon. Liv. 38,15,2 erwähnt die K. im Zusam…

Daskyleion

(515 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) | Bakır-Akbaşoğlu, Tomris (Izmir)
(Δασκύλειον, Δασκύλιον). [English version] [1] Stadt in Bithynia Stadt in Bithynia, Mitglied des Attisch-Delischen Seebundes, deren Name in dem ON Eşkel Liman (h. Esence) an der Küste der Propontis westl. von Apameia Myrleia vermutet wird (Plin. nat. 5,143; Steph. Byz. s.v. Brýllion). Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) Bakır-Akbaşoğlu, Tomris (Izmir) [English version] [2] Ortschaft am SO-Ufer des Daskylitis-Sees Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaimenidai | Alexandros | Diadochen und Epigonen | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Pelo…

Dindymon

(110 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[English version] (Δίνδυμον). Berg an der Grenze zw. Galatia und Phrygia (h. Arayit oder Günüzü Dağı), 1820 m hoch, nahe der Sangarios-Quelle (Claud. in Eutropium 2,262f., vgl. Strab. 12,3,7). Manche ant. Autoren leiteten nach der äußeren Erscheinung des Berges seinen Namen von “doppelt”, “gegabelt” ab (Nonn. Dion. 48,855). Berühmt war der D. durch den Kult der Kybele, deren Tempel in der nahegelegenen Stadt Pessinus stand und die hier wie anderswo den Beinamen Dindyménē trug (Strab. 12,5,3). Attis wurde hier begraben (Paus. 1,4,5, der diesen Berg Ágdistis nennt). Stützpunkt Al…

Hierapolis

(338 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Ἱεράπολις). [English version] [1] Bed. Stadt in SW-Phrygia Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Christentum | Naturkatastrophen | Orakel | Pergamon | Theater Bed. Stadt in SW-Phrygia (zu unterscheiden von der gleichnamigen Stadt in der “Pentapolis” in Zentral-Phrygia) am Rand des Lykos-Tals an der Straße im Hermos-Tal von Sardeis nach Apameia, berühmt für die warmen Quellen, deren Wasser beim Verdunsten weiße Kalksinterterassen entstehen läßt; sie haben dem Ort den h. Namen Pamukkale (“Baumwollschloß”) geg…

Kyzikos

(415 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Attisch-Delischer Seebund | Bildung | Byzantion, Byzanz | Kleinasien | Kolonisation | Peloponnesischer Krieg | Pergamon | Perserkriege | Roma | Theater | Straßen (Κύζικος, Cyzicus). Stadt in Mysia an der Südküste der Propontis auf dem Isthmos der Halbinsel Arktonnesos (Kapıdağ), h. Balkız, im Osten von Erdek. K. verdankte seinen Wohlstand dem Doppelhafen und dem großen Territorium (vgl. die Beschreibung mit Lage der Stadt bei Strab. 12,8,11). Seit Aufkommen der M…
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