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Pammenes

(478 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Παμμένης; Pamménēs). [German version] [1] Close friend of Epaminondas Theban, close friend of Epaminondas. On his second Peloponnesian campaign, Epaminondas entrusted the still young P. with garrisoning Sicyon (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,16,3), and in 368 BC with a mission to protect Megalopolis (Paus. 8,27,2). From 368 to 365, Philippus [4] II, who was about the same age as P., stayed as a hostage in the house of P.' parents ([1. 118] with bibliography). After the death of Epaminondas at Mantinea, P. became a…

Micion

(247 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μικίων; Mikíōn). Son of M., from Cephisia. Shortly after 230 BC he and his brother Euryclides saw to it that the Macedonian troops in Piraeus under Diogenes [1] were paid and hence left (IG II2 834, 10ff.; [1. 79ff.; 118ff.]). He had helped Athens before (in 248/7; at the time perhaps agōnothétēs: IG II2 1705), when it was threatened from outside (Agora XVI 213 I 35, cf. [2. 26ff.]). From the 240s until the 220s M. and his brother rejected an alliance with Aratus [2] on ground of neutrality (Plut. Aratus 24; 33-34; 41; Pol. 5,106; …

Lyppeus

(92 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (spelled as in Stv II 309; on coins Λυκκείου/ Lykkeíou or Λυκπείου/ Lykpeíou, HN 236; [1. 199-201, pl. XXXVII; 2. 71]). L., king of Paeonia (359-335 BC), fought alongside Cetriporis of Thrace and Grabus of Illyria (356) against Philippus II of Macedonia, but joined the latter as an ally after the defeat (Isoc. Or. 5,21; Diod. Sic. 16,22,3: not mentioned by name); Stv II 309 (alliance with Athens of July 356). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 H. Gaebler, Mz. Nordgriechenlands, vol. 3.2, 1935 2 H. Krahe, Die Sprache der Illyrier, 1955.

Nicaea

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια; Níkaia). [German version] [1] Naiad Naiad, daughter of the Phrygian river god Sangarius and the goddess Cybele. As a huntress, N. spurns love and remains a virgin. In Memnon of Heracleia, she does not yield to Dionysus and so he resorts to a ruse and turns into wine the spring from which N. is accustomed to drinking. She becomes drunk and falls asleep. Dionysus overpowers her in her sleep and fathers with her 'satyrs and others' (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). In Nonnus, Dion. 15,169-16,405, the…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Polybius

(3,367 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Moritz, Anja (Potsdam)
(Πολύβιος; Polýbios). [German version] [1] (Physician) see Polybus [6] Physician, see Polybus [6] Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) [German version] [2] Greek historian, 3rd/2nd. cent. BC Greek historian. Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) [German version] A. Life Son of Lycortas, the leading statesman of the Achaean League (Achaea with map), from Megalopolis. He was born before 199 BC (as hípparchos, i.e. holder of the second highest office within the Achaean League in 169 BC, he must have been at least 30 years old), died in around 120 BC (according to Ps.-Lucian.…

Nicarete

(74 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Νικαρέτη/ Nikarétē). Daughter of a prominent family from Megara. Student of the philosopher Stilpo (Ath. 13,596e). The sources present her as a courtesan of Stilpo (Diog. Laert. 2,114 acc. to Onetor) and of the orator Stephanus (Ath. 13,593f). Her love for Stilpo earned her ridicule from the comedian Crates [1] (Diog. Laert. 2,118). The association with Stephanus is believed to be based on mistaken identity (with Neaera [6]). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)

Machaerion

(115 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μαχαιρίων; Machairíōn). Name of the Spartan (or Mantinaean) who is said to have killed Epaminondas in the battle of Mantinaea (in 362 BC) (Paus. 8,11,5; the Athenian Gryllus [2], who is also mentioned there, is ruled out as the perpetrator as he had, according to Ephorus, already fallen in battle: FGrH 70 F 85). According to Diodorus (15,86), Epaminondas was killed ‘with a spear’ ( dórati) in the middle of the battle; Plutarch (Agesilaus 35), basing his views on the epigrammatist Dioscorides, however, mentions an Anticrates whose descendants call themselves Machairíon…

Olympiodorus

(850 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Ὀλυμπιόδωρος; Olympiódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian, managed between 307 and 301 BC to induce Aetolia to enter into an alliance against Cassander and to relieve Elatea (Paus. 1,26,3; 10,18,7; 34,3). Although Demetrius [2] Pol…

Ctesippus

(147 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Socratic see  Socratics Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) [German version] [2] Son of the Athenian stratēgós Chabrias, trierarch 334/3 BC Son of the Athenian stratēgós  Chabrias from Aexone, for whom Demosthenes [2] fought against the motion by Leptines for repeal of the atéleia ( Liturgies) in 354 BC (Dem. Or. 20,75; 82). C. is attested as trierarch (IG II2 1623,72f.: 334/3 BC; in IG II2 1604,87 [377/6] perhaps the grandfather) and   choregos (IG II2 3040; in the 320s according to [1. 24]). C.'s obstinate behaviour is the target of comic mockery (Diphi…

Ismenias

(791 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἰσμηνίας; Ismēnías or Ἱσμηνίας; Ismēnías). [German version] [1] Prominent Theban politician, 5th/4th cent. BC Prominent Theban politician, famous for his wealth (Pl. Men. 90a). After the end of the Peloponnese War (431-404 BC), I., with  Androclidas, came to the fore as leaders of a Hetaeria which opposed the pro-Spartan politics of  Leontiades. The goals were to push back the Leontiades faction and to bring about a new orientation in international politics towards Athens (Hell. Oxy. 12,1f.; 13,1; Xen. Hell.…

Leontiades

(211 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λεοντιάδης; Leontiádēs). [German version] [1] Theban leader at the Battle of Thermopylae, 5th cent. BC Theban, leader of the contingent which, on the order of Leonidas [1], had to take part in the battle about the Thermopylae (480 BC). The Thebans were suspected of pro-Persian sympathies, and during the battle they did indeed defect to the Persians (Hdt. 7,205; 233). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Theban politician, c. 400 BC (Plut.: Λεωντίδης/ Leōntídēs), Theban politician, leader of a party of pro-Spartan property owners (Hell. Oxy. 15 Barto…

Pantaleon

(501 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Πανταλέων/ Pantaléōn). [German version] [1] King of the Pisates, middle of the 7th cent. BC Son of Omphalion, king of the Pisates (middle of the 7th cent. BC); P.'s rule may have been perceived as tyranny already in his own lifetime (cf. Paus. 6,21,1). He temporarily wrested the organisation of the Olympic Games from the Eleians (Olympia IV.; Paus. 6,22,2) [1. 220f.]. His support of the Messenians in the second of the Messenian Wars (Str. 8,4,10) is a later invention [2. 153f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 L. de Libero, Die archaische Tyrannis, 1996 2 K. Tausend, Amphikty…

Cephisodorus

(622 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Κηφισόδωρος; Kēphisódōros). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Poet of the Attic Old Comedy, for whom Lysias records a not further specified victory in 402 BC (Lys. or. 21,4) and whose name also appears on the list of winners at the Dionysia (after Nicophon and Theopompus) [1. test. 2; 3]. The titles of four pieces are transmitted (Ἀμαζόνες/‘The Amazons, Ἀντιλαΐς/‘Antilaïs, Τροφώνιος/‘Trophonius, Ὕς/‘Hys) as well as a total of 13 verses; the longest fragment of these contains five verses of a dia…

Leaena

(162 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λέαινα; Léaina). [German version] [1] Hetaera of Aristogiton [1], 6th cent. BC Legendary hetaera of Aristogeiton [1]. After the murder of Hipparchus [1], Hippias [1] allegedly raped and killed her (Paus. 1,23,1f.; Plut. Mor. 505E; Ath. 596f; Cic. fr. 8,12 Merguet). In another version, she bit off her tongue while being tortured by Hippias so she would not betray her lover (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,45). A bronze lioness was supposedly erected to commemorate her. The name of the heroine (‘Lioness’) and the mor…

Hagnonides

(119 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἁγνωνίδης; Hagnōnídēs). Son of Nicoxenus of Pergase. In 325/4 BC claimant in a naval document (IG II2 1629a 14f.). Accused in the Harpalus affair by Dinarchus (Hyp. in Demosthenem 40; Dion. Hal. de Dinarcho, 10f.). After the defeat of Athens in 322, the banished H. was able to stay in the Peloponnese through the mediation of Phocion. Later however H. instigated the latter's execution (May 318; Plut. Phocion 33-37; Nepos Phocion 3,3). Attested as the claimant again in 318/7 (IG II2…

Lysander

(988 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λύσανδρος; Lýsandros). [German version] [1] Spartan fleet commander, end of the 5th cent. BC Spartiate, son of Aristocritus. Reports that the family, which traces its family tree back to Hercules and was connected to king Libys of Cyrene through hospitality (Diod. Sic. 14,13,5-6; Paus. 6,3,14), was impoverished (Plut. Lysander = Lys. 2,1) and that L. was considered a móthax (foster-brother of a citizen's boy, móthakes ) (Phylarchos FGrH 81 F 43; Ael. VH 12,43), appear to be based on deliberate defamation. L. became fleet commander ( naúarchos) of the Spartan fleet in Rhodes ( Pe…

Nicagoras

(381 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Lasserre, F. (Lausanne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Νικαγόρας/ Nikagóras). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Zelia, c. 330 BC According to the Greek historian Bato of Sinope (Athenaeus 7,289b-c = FHG 4, 348 fragment 1), N. was tyrant of Zelia. He is identical with the N. mentioned by Clement of Alexandria (Protrepticus 4,48), a contemporary of Alexander [4] the Great's and possibly tyrant by the grace of Darius [3] III [1. 229]. N. fell from power after the battle on the Granicus (in this context possibly Syll.3 279,7) and the town of Zelia apologized to Alexander (Arr. Anab. 1,17,2). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 H.G. Lolling, Mi…

Nicippus

(69 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Νίκιππος/ Níkippos). Messenian oligarch, who enforced neutrality as éphoros ( éphoroi ) against a popular majority, when Philippus V sought to win Messene to his Hellenic League against Aetolia in 220 BC. Because Messene was also the reason for the involvement of the league, Polybius denounced this position (4,31,2f.; 32,1; 36,8) [1. 424f.]. Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 B. Niese, Geschichte der griechischen und makedonischen Staaten, vol. 2, 1899.

Nicocreon

(395 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Νικοκρέων/ Nikokréōn). [German version] [1] Conspirator against Evagoras, c. 375 BC N. plotted unsuccessfully against Evagoras [1], the king of Salamis on Cyprus (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 103,12), and had to flee (around 375 BC). N.'s daughter became the mistress of Evagoras and of the heir to the throne, Pnytagoras. According to [1. 99-101] the result of this union was the future king Pnytagoras II, whose son was Nicocreon [2]. Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 Beloch, GG 4,2 2 LGPN 1, 335, nr. 1. [German version] [2] King of the town of Salamis on Cyprus, 332/1 BC Son of Pnytagor…
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