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FATḤ B. ḴĀQĀN

(171 words)

Author(s): EIr
b. ḴĀQĀN (d. 861), famous bibliophile, author, courtier, and official in ʿAbbasid times. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 4, pp. 422 FATḤ,b. ḴĀQĀN, famous bibliophile, author, courtier, and official in ʿAbbasid times ( d. 4 Šawwāl 247/11 December 861). Some modern authorities have referred to him as “al-Fāresī” or claim he was of Persian ancestry (Zereklī, Aʿlam2 V, p. 133; Dehḵodā, s.v. “Fatḥ b. Ḵāqān”; Yıldız, p. 452), but this appears to be erroneous. Masʿūdī ( Morūj VII, p. 191) gives Fatḥ the nesba al-Torkī, and his father, a military officer n…
Date: 2013-05-28

AMIR KABIR PUBLISHERS

(680 words)

Author(s): EIr
a major Persian publishing house active from 1949 to 1979, founded by ʿAbd-al-Raḥim Jaʿfari (b. 1298 Š. /1919) in a small office on Nāṣer Ḵosrow Avenue in Tehran, the location for most major publishers at the time. It opened its first bookstore nearby and later established thirteen branches throughout the city. AMIR KABIR PUBLISHERS, a major Persian publishing house active from 1949 to 1979. It was founded by ʿAbd-al-Raḥim Jaʿfari (b. 1298 Š. /1919) in a small office on Nāṣer Ḵosrow Avenue in Tehran, the location for most major publishers at the t…
Date: 2013-02-25

BONGĀH-E ḤEMĀYAT-E MĀDARĀN O KŪDAKĀN

(347 words)

Author(s): EIr
(Institute for the protection of mothers and infants), founded 16 December 1940 on the order of Reżā Shah, originally funded by charitable contributions. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 4, pp. 350-351 BONGĀH-E ḤEMĀYAT-E MĀDARĀN O KŪDAKĀN (Institute for the protection of mothers and infants), founded 25 Āḏar 1319 Š./16 December 1940 on the order of Reżā Shah, originally funded by charitable contributions. During World War II the institute distributed clothing and hot meals among the poor. In 1320 Š./19…
Date: 2013-03-11

BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD

(1,202 words)

Author(s): EIr
The Bonyād officially started work on 9 April 1980. A decision taken by the Revolutionary Council on 13 June 1980 attached the Martyrs’ Foundation to the National Health Organization (Sāzmān-e Behzīstī-e Kešꏂvar), itself administered under the supervision of the prime minister. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 4, pp. 360-361 BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD (Martyrs’ Foundation), a non-profit organization established on 22 Esfand 1358 Š./12 March 1980 on the orders of Imam Ḵomeynī, in order to care for the veterans of the revolution a…
Date: 2013-11-18

KHADIV-JAM, HOSSEIN

(1,253 words)

Author(s): EIr
(1927-1986), Iranian translator and scholar of Persian and Arabic. His major publications range from translation of contemporary Arabic scholarship on Islamic philosophy to the critical edition of a number of major works in the fields of medieval philosophy and pre-modern history of Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume XVI, Fascicle 4, pp. 381-383 KHADIV JAM, HOSSEIN (Sayyed Ḥosayn Ḵadiv Jam, b. Mashhad, 1927; d. Tehran, 17 October 1986), Iranian translator and scholar of Persian and Arabic. His major publications range from tran…
Date: 2015-06-25

BONGĀH-E MOSTAQELL-E ĀBYĀRĪ

(598 words)

Author(s): EIr
(Indeꏂpendent irrigation agency), established by the Majles on 19 May 1943 to improve irrigation in Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 4, pp. 351 BONGĀH-E MOSTAQELL-E ĀBYĀRĪ (Independent irrigation agency), established by the Majles on 29 Ordībehešt 1322 Š./19 May 1943, during the administration of ʿAlī Sohaylī, to improve irrigation in Iran by building dams, managing distribution of river resources, digging deep wells, resolving water distribution disputes, assisting agricultural projects, and cleaning the qanāts (underground aqueduct…
Date: 2016-12-06

ABU'L-QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN

(248 words)

Author(s): EIr
The only son of Kāmrān Mīrza, brother and rival of the Mughal emperor Homāyūn (r. 937-47, 962-63/1530-40, 1555-56). A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 4, pp. 357-358 ABU’L- QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN, MĪRZĀ, only son of Kāmrān Mīrzā, the brother and rival of the Mughal emperor Homāyūn (r. 937-47, 962-63/1530-40, 1555-56). An incident of symbolic significance, placed in the year 952/1545 (or 951/1544), is related in the Akbar-nāma (tr. I, pp. 455-56): The boys Abu’l-Qāsem and Akbar, sons of two rival princes, wrestle for possession of a kett…
Date: 2016-08-02

AŠŌQAR

(98 words)

Author(s): EIr
in Syriac sources the name of a deity. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 785 AŠŌQAR, in Syriac sources the name of a deity who together with the two deities Frašōqar and Zarōqar is coexistent and co-eternal with Zurvan (see R. C. Zaehner, Zurvan, a Zoroastrian Dilemma, Oxford, 1955, pp. 219-31; Syriac sources, ibid., pp. 219 n. 3, 439-40). The name is identical with Av. aršō. kara- ( Yt. 14.28, AirWb., col. 204), and presumably means “he who makes virile” (Avesta, tr. Darmesteter, II, p. 568). See Zurvan. EIr
Date: 2016-09-30

FARZĀN, Sayyed Moḥammad

(779 words)

Author(s): EIr
(b. near Birjand, 1894; d. Bābolsar, 1970), an eminent scholar of classical literature. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 4, pp. 386 FARZĀN, Sayyed MOḤAMMAD (b. near Brijand, 1273 Š./1894; d. Bābolsar, 23 Farvardin 1349 Š./11 April 1970), an eminent scholar of classical literature. Farzān received his elementary education from his father, who died while Sayyed Mohammad was eleven years old. Farzān and his mother and brother left their village for Brijand, where Sayyed Moḥammad went to the …
Date: 2013-05-27

JĀRČI-E MELLAT

(996 words)

Author(s): EIr.
a weekly satirical newspaper published in Tehran, 1910-28 (with long interruptions). A version of this article is available in print Volume XIV, Fascicle 6, pp. 581-582 JĀRČI-E MELLAT, a weekly satirical paper published in Tehran with long interruptions between 12 Šawwāl 1328/16 October 1910 and 8 Ḵordād 1307 Š./29 May 1928. It was suspended on numerous occasions, and the two papers, Jārči-e asrār (2 Ḏu’l-ḥejja 1329/23 Nov. 1911) and Jāsus (22 Rabiʿ I 1332/18 Feb. 1914; Ṣadr Hāšemi, II, p. 161), that were published as replacements were immediately banned. In the …
Date: 2012-04-13

BAGLEY, FRANK RONALD CHARLES

(1,246 words)

Author(s): EIr.
(1915-1997), British diplomat, translator, and professor of Persian and Arabic at Durham University and McGill University. BAGLEY , FRANK RONALD CHARLES (b. 15 October 1915, Cheshire, England/d. 7 August 1997, Kent, England; Figure 1), British diplomat, translator, and professor of Persian and Arabic at Durham University and McGill University. Bagley was born into an affluent and highly educated family in Cheshire, England. Late in the 1910s, he attended St. Peter’s Court Preparatory School in Broadstairs, Kent. Later he attended the famous En…
Date: 2016-08-10

KHAZARVĀN

(407 words)

Author(s): EIr.
A version of this article is available in print Volume XVI, Fascicle 5, pp. 528-529 KHAZARVĀN (ḴAZARVĀN/ ḴAZVARĀN/ ḴAZRAVĀN), a proper name, attested in the Šāh-nāma for men and a demon. (a) Khazarvān, a Turanian commander killed by Zāl, the legendary prince of Sistān ( Šāh-nāma, ed. Khaleghi, I, l. 124, p. 294; ll. 385-403, pp. 310-12; “Ḵazwazān” in Ṯaʿālebi, pp. 119-22). When Afrāsiāb (q.v.), the Turanian king, fights at Dahestān, he assigns a supplementary force to attack Zābol. Khazarvān, one of his commanders, goes with thirty thousan…

ĀSRŌN

(100 words)

Author(s): EIr
Middle Persian form of Avestan āΘravan. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 802-803 ĀSRŌN, Middle Persian form of Avestan āΘravan. The form āsrōn continues Av. āΘrauuanəm (acc. sing.) whereas the also attested form āsrō (Pahlavi Videvdād and Vispred, Pazand āsrū) is most likely to continue āΘrauua (nom. sing.), cf. Pazand āšo for Av. ašauua (Pahl. ahlaw). In Middle Persian texts āsrōn designates a member of the priestly class and is almost invariably mentioned together with artēštār and wāstaryōš, members of the warrior and farmer classes. See also…
Date: 2016-10-03

KAYHAN

(3,448 words)

Author(s): EIr.
a leading daily newspaper published in Tehran from 1942 until the 1979 Revolution. Since then, it has been published under the patronage of the Islamic Republic’s supreme leader. Kayhan of London was foundedin 1984 as a weekly newspaper; it has continued to be published as a monarchist newspaper for Iranians in Diaspora. A version of this article is available in print Volume XVI, Fascicle 2, pp. 176-180 KAYHAN ( Kayhān, lit., “the universe”), a leading daily newspaper published in Tehran under the aegis of Moṣṭafā Meṣbāḥzādeh (1908-2006) from 1942 until the 1979 …
Date: 2015-04-21

ʿEBRAT

(576 words)

Author(s): EIr
a monthly magazine first published on 4 February 1956 as the organ of Tūda party prisoners under the auspices and with the facilities of the Office of Tehran’s Military Governor, General Teymūr Baḵtīār. A version of this article is available in print Volume VIII, Fascicle 1, pp. 79 ʿEBRAT, a monthly magazine first published on 15 Bahman 1334 Š./4 February 1956 as the organ of Tūda party prisoners under the auspices and with the facilities of the Office of Tehran’s Military Governor, General Teymūr Baḵtīār. Its format was thirty-eight, and lat…
Date: 2014-01-08

GOL-ĀQĀ

(494 words)

Author(s): EIr
a weekly satirical magazine founded by Kayumarṯ Ṣāberi which first began publication on 23 October 1990. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 1, pp. 62 GOL-ĀQĀ, a weekly satirical magazine founded by Kayumarṯ Ṣāberi which first began publication on 23 October 1990. The circulation of Gol-āqā soon reached over “100,000 copies a week; a remarkable success” (Geraldine Brooks, “Hot New Satirical Magazine Reflects a New Glasnost: Judge Blood Not Amused,” The Wall Street Journal October 1, 1991, p. A1). The name “Gol-āqā” was first used as a pen na…
Date: 2013-06-03

FARĪD BHAKKARI

(313 words)

Author(s): EIr
b. Shaikh Maʿrūf BHAKKARĪ, 16-17th century author of an important biographical dictionary in Persian of Mughal notables, the Ḏaḵīrat al-ḵawanīn. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 3, pp. 280 FARĪD b. Shaikh Maʿrūf BHAKKARĪ, author of an important biographical dictionary in Persian of Mughal notables, the Ḏaḵīrat al-ḵawanīn. Nothing is known of the life of Shaikh Farīd Bhakkarī beyond the few autobiographical details mentioned in his book. From these, it appears that he was in the bureaucratic service of several Mug…
Date: 2013-05-26

BRITISH COUNCIL

(710 words)

Author(s): EIr
The first British Council representative was appointed to Iran in 1942. The priority was English language teaching, and by 1944 the Council was teaching over 4,000 students. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 5, pp. 455-456 BRITISH COUNCIL: activities in Iran 1942-79. The first British Council representative was appointed to Iran in 1942. The priority was English language teaching, and by 1944 the Council was teaching over 4,000 students. By 1948 the Council had opened six provincial institutes with libra…
Date: 2017-02-15

FOŻŪLĪ, MOḤAMMAD

(1,808 words)

Author(s): Eir
b. Solaymān (ca. 1480-1556), widely regarded as the greatest lyric poet in Azerbayjani Turkish, who also wrote extensively in Arabic and Persian. A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 2, pp. 121-122 FOŻŪLĪ, MOḤAMMAD, b. Solaymān (ca. 885-936/1480-1556), widely regarded as the greatest lyric poet in Azerbayjani Turkish, who also wrote extensively in Arabic and Persian. He adopted the pen name ( taḵalloṣ) of Fożūlī (presumptuous) in order to be “unique,” as he reveals in the preface to his Persian dīvān (Karahan, in EI2 II, p. 937; Bombaci, 1970, p. 13). Fożūlī h…
Date: 2015-12-22

FAḴR-E MODABBER

(761 words)

Author(s): EIr
pen-name of Moḥammad b. Manṣūr b. Saʿīd, entitled Mobārakšāh, author of two prose works in Persian written in India in the late 12th and early 13th century, a book on genealogy with no formal title and the famous Ādāb al-ḥarb wa’l-šajāʿa. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 2, pp. 164 FAḴR-E MODABBER, pen-name of Moḥammad b. Manṣūr b. Saʿīd, entitled Mobārakšāh, author of two prose works in Persian written in India in the late 6th/12th and early 7th/13th century, a book on genealogy with no formal title and the famous Ādāb al-ḥarb wa’l-šajāʿa (q.v.). Most of t…
Date: 2013-05-22
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