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CHINESE TURKESTAN

(23,306 words)

Author(s): EIr | Victor Mair | Prods Oktor Skjærvø | Isenbike Togan | Morris Rossabi | Et al.
(Sinkiang, Xinjiang), IRANIAN ELEMENTS IN. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 5, pp. 460-484 CHINESE TURKESTAN i. Geographical Overview The eastern portion of the Central Asian land mass (see central asia i. geography), between 70° and 100° E and 25° and 45° N, encompasses Chinese Turkestan, now Sinkiang (Xin-jiang) Uighur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China, with the Tarim basin and the high plateaus and mountains surrounding it (capital Urumchi [Wu-lu-mu-chi]); Tibet (ca…
Date: 2014-05-26

CLOTHING

(92,910 words)

Author(s): EIr | Shapur Shahbazi | Trudi Kawami | Elsie H. Peck | Gerd Gropp | Et al.
(Ar. and Pers. lebās, Pers. pūšāk, jāma, raḵt). The articles in this series are devoted to clothing of the Iranian peoples in successive historical periods and of various regions and ethnic groups in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 7, 8, pp. 719-870 CLOTHING i. General remarks Of the twenty-seven subsequent articles in this series eleven are devoted to clothing of the Iranian peoples in successive historical periods and fourteen to modern clothing of various regions and ethnic group…
Date: 2013-06-20

ENAMEL

(1,573 words)

Author(s): EIr | Layla S. Diba
a heat-fused glass paste colored by metal oxides and used to decorate metal surfaces. Enamel was associated with lapidary, glassworking, and goldmithing crafts and was probably used primarily in place of precious stones before the 17th century. A version of this article is available in print Volume VIII, Fascicle 4, pp. 424-428 ENAMEL (Pers. mīnā, possibly a dialect form of mīnū < Mid. Pers. mēnōg “uncorporeal, spiritual, the world beyond, heaven” < *"sky" < "blue," meaning "glass, luster, enamel" [Horn, Etymologie, s.v. mīnō; for the ū-/ ā- variation in words derived from OIr. - u stems…
Date: 2017-12-20

EGYPT

(19,435 words)

Author(s): Edda Bresciani | Philip Huyse | Heinz Heinen | Ruth Altheim-Stiehl | Jonathan M. Bloom | Et al.
relations with Persia and Afghanistan. A version of this article is available in print Volume VIII, Fascicle 3, pp. 247-267 EGYPT: relations with Persia and Afghanistan.i. Persians in Egypt in the Achaemenid periodii. Egyptian influence on Persia in the Pre-Islamic periodiii. Relations in the Seleucid and Parthian periodsiv. Relations in the Sasanian periodv. Political and commerical relations in the Islamic period. See FATIMIDS, AYYUBIDS, IL-KHANIDSvi. Artistic relations with Persia in the Islamic periodvii. Political and religious relations with Persia in the modern periodv…
Date: 2017-04-20

MAHDAVI, Yaḥyā

(755 words)

Author(s): Moḥammad Ḵᵛānsāri | EIr
Mahdavi continued his education at Tehran Teachers College from 1928 until 1931, from which he was among the first to graduate with a bachelor's degree. In 1931, he received a scholarship from the state to continue his education in France until his graduation in 1938, writing his doctoral thesis under André Lanlande and Emile Bréhier. MAHDAVI, YAḤYĀ (b. Tehran, spring 1287 Š./1908; d. Tehran, 1379 Š./2000; Figure 1), professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran and a leading translator of Western philosophical works. Mahdavi was the son of Ḥā…
Date: 2014-01-03

FATḤ B. ḴĀQĀN

(171 words)

Author(s): EIr
b. ḴĀQĀN (d. 861), famous bibliophile, author, courtier, and official in ʿAbbasid times. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 4, pp. 422 FATḤ,b. ḴĀQĀN, famous bibliophile, author, courtier, and official in ʿAbbasid times ( d. 4 Šawwāl 247/11 December 861). Some modern authorities have referred to him as “al-Fāresī” or claim he was of Persian ancestry (Zereklī, Aʿlam2 V, p. 133; Dehḵodā, s.v. “Fatḥ b. Ḵāqān”; Yıldız, p. 452), but this appears to be erroneous. Masʿūdī ( Morūj VII, p. 191) gives Fatḥ the nesba al-Torkī, and his father, a military officer n…
Date: 2013-05-28

BONGĀH-E ḤEMĀYAT-E MĀDARĀN O KŪDAKĀN

(347 words)

Author(s): EIr
(Institute for the protection of mothers and infants), founded 16 December 1940 on the order of Reżā Shah, originally funded by charitable contributions. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 4, pp. 350-351 BONGĀH-E ḤEMĀYAT-E MĀDARĀN O KŪDAKĀN (Institute for the protection of mothers and infants), founded 25 Āḏar 1319 Š./16 December 1940 on the order of Reżā Shah, originally funded by charitable contributions. During World War II the institute distributed clothing and hot meals among the poor. In 1320 Š./19…
Date: 2013-03-11

FEMINIST MOVEMENTS

(11,590 words)

Author(s): EIr. | Afary, Janet | Sedghi, Hamideh | Mir-Hosseini, Ziba
Persia of the 20th century saw a number of popular, often small and short-lived, women’s rights activities which had been mobilized in the 1900s-1920s and again in the 1940s-50s.A version of this article is available in printVolume IX, Fascicle 5, pp. 489-491i. INTRODUCTIONThe principle concerns of the women’s rights movement in Persia have been equal access to modern education; improvements in health and hygiene; removal of the veil and other changes in traditional gender roles and household relations; greater employment opportunities …
Date: 2021-07-20

BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD

(1,202 words)

Author(s): EIr
The Bonyād officially started work on 9 April 1980. A decision taken by the Revolutionary Council on 13 June 1980 attached the Martyrs’ Foundation to the National Health Organization (Sāzmān-e Behzīstī-e Kešꏂvar), itself administered under the supervision of the prime minister. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 4, pp. 360-361 BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD (Martyrs’ Foundation), a non-profit organization established on 22 Esfand 1358 Š./12 March 1980 on the orders of Imam Ḵomeynī, in order to care for the veterans of the revolution a…
Date: 2013-11-18

EDUCATION

(48,372 words)

Author(s): Muhammad A. Dandamayev | Aḥmad Tafażżolī | Jalīl Dūstḵᵛāh | Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾī | Christopher Melchert | Et al.
(Pers. āmūzeš o parvareš; earlier Ar. Per. taʿlīm o tarbīat) in Iranian-speaking areas. A version of this article is available in print Volume VIII, Fascicle 2, 3, pp. 178-245 EDUCATION (Pers. āmūzeš o parvareš; earlier Ar. Per. taʿlīm o tarbīat) in Iranian-speaking areas. EDUCATION i. IN THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD Little is known of the training of children during the Achaemenid period. In two Elamite documents from Persepolis drafted in the 23rd regnal year of Darius I (499 B.C.E.) “Persian boys (who) are copying texts” are mentioned (Hallock, no…
Date: 2013-07-03

FARMĀNFARMĀ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN MĪRZĀ

(2,973 words)

Author(s): Cyrus Mir | EIr
(1858-1939), Qajar prince-governor, military commander, skillful politician, head of various ministries, and prime minister. He managed to sail successfully the stormy sea of Persian politics for several decades while the entire social and political landscape was undergoing dramatic change. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 3, pp. 296-299 FARMĀNFARMĀ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN MĪRZĀ (b. Tehran, 1274/1858; d. Tehran, 1318 Š./1939; Plate I), Qajar prince-governor, military commander, skillful politician, head of various ministrie…
Date: 2013-05-26

BONGĀH-E MOSTAQELL-E ĀBYĀRĪ

(598 words)

Author(s): EIr
(Indeꏂpendent irrigation agency), established by the Majles on 19 May 1943 to improve irrigation in Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 4, pp. 351 BONGĀH-E MOSTAQELL-E ĀBYĀRĪ (Independent irrigation agency), established by the Majles on 29 Ordībehešt 1322 Š./19 May 1943, during the administration of ʿAlī Sohaylī, to improve irrigation in Iran by building dams, managing distribution of river resources, digging deep wells, resolving water distribution disputes, assisting agricultural projects, and cleaning the qanāts (underground aqueduct…
Date: 2016-12-06

NAḴJAVĀNI, ḤĀJJ MOḤAMMAD

(539 words)

Author(s): Hūšang Etteḥād | EIr
(1880-1962), businessman, scholar, and collector of manuscripts. NAḴJAVĀNI, ḤĀJI MOḤAMMAD (b. Tabriz, 1880; d. Tabriz, 15 Mordād 1341 Š./6 August 1962), businessman, scholar, and collector of manuscripts. His father, Ḥājj ʿAli ʿAbbās was a leading merchant in Tabriz and attended to his son’s education from early years. The young Moḥammad began his elementary education under Āqā Ḥosayn Amin-al-Odabā and at Ṭalebiya school, where he studied Persian and Arabic grammar and literature under an erudite teach…
Date: 2016-01-28

AŠŌQAR

(98 words)

Author(s): EIr
in Syriac sources the name of a deity. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 785 AŠŌQAR, in Syriac sources the name of a deity who together with the two deities Frašōqar and Zarōqar is coexistent and co-eternal with Zurvan (see R. C. Zaehner, Zurvan, a Zoroastrian Dilemma, Oxford, 1955, pp. 219-31; Syriac sources, ibid., pp. 219 n. 3, 439-40). The name is identical with Av. aršō. kara- ( Yt. 14.28, AirWb., col. 204), and presumably means “he who makes virile” (Avesta, tr. Darmesteter, II, p. 568). See Zurvan. EIr
Date: 2016-09-30

GILĀN PROVINCE

(101,188 words)

Author(s): Marcel Bazin | Habibollah Zanjani | Ezat O. Negahban | Wilferd Madelung | Manouchehr Kasheff | Et al.
or Ḡelān; province at the southwestern coast of the Caspian Sea. A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 6, pp. 617-668 GĪLĀN i. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOGRAPHY Physical Geography (Figure 1). Gīlān includes the northwestern end of the Alborz chain and the western part of the Caspian lowlands of Persia. The mountainous belt is cut through by the deep transversal valley of the Safīdrūd between Manjīl and Emāmzāda Hāšem near Rašt. To the northwest, the Ṭāleš highlands stretch a continuous watershed separating…
Date: 2016-07-19

CINEMA

(21,496 words)

Author(s): Farrokh Gaffary | Jamsheed Akrami | Hamid Naficy | EIr
This series of articles treats the history of cinema in Persia, Persian feature film, Persian documentary films, film censorship in Persia, and filmography in Persia. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 6, pp. 567-590 CINEMA i. History of Cinema in Persia The beginnings. On 7 Rabīʿ I 1318/8 June 1900, during his first trip to Europe, Moẓaffar-al-Dīn Shah (1313-24/1896-1907) saw at Contrexeville, France, scenes filmed with the cinématographe, the French motion-picture camera that had been invented only five years earlier (Moẓaffar-al-Dīn…
Date: 2013-06-11

SAMĀʿI, ḤABIB

(828 words)

Author(s): Dehkordi, Morteżā Ḥoseyni | EIr.
outstanding player of the santur. SAMĀʿI, ḤABIB (b. Tehran, 1284 Š./1905; d. Tehran, 1325 Š./1946), outstanding player of the santur (a kind of dulcimer), usually considered the greatest santur player of his time (Mašhun, II, p. 517).Samāʿi’s first teacher of music was his father Ḥabib-Allāh Samāʿ Ḥożur, an accomplished performer of the santur, who started teaching his son how to play the tombak (drum) when the child was four years old. Before long Samāʿi began to accompany his father’s santur playing with his tombak. He then started learning how to play the santur, and by virtue of hi…
Date: 2021-07-20

FARĪD BHAKKARI

(313 words)

Author(s): EIr
b. Shaikh Maʿrūf BHAKKARĪ, 16-17th century author of an important biographical dictionary in Persian of Mughal notables, the Ḏaḵīrat al-ḵawanīn. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 3, pp. 280 FARĪD b. Shaikh Maʿrūf BHAKKARĪ, author of an important biographical dictionary in Persian of Mughal notables, the Ḏaḵīrat al-ḵawanīn. Nothing is known of the life of Shaikh Farīd Bhakkarī beyond the few autobiographical details mentioned in his book. From these, it appears that he was in the bureaucratic service of several Mug…
Date: 2013-05-26

BRITISH COUNCIL

(710 words)

Author(s): EIr
The first British Council representative was appointed to Iran in 1942. The priority was English language teaching, and by 1944 the Council was teaching over 4,000 students. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 5, pp. 455-456 BRITISH COUNCIL: activities in Iran 1942-79. The first British Council representative was appointed to Iran in 1942. The priority was English language teaching, and by 1944 the Council was teaching over 4,000 students. By 1948 the Council had opened six provincial institutes with libra…
Date: 2017-02-15

FALLĀḤ, REŻĀ

(881 words)

Author(s): Bāqer ʿĀqelī | EIr
(b. Kāšān, 1910; d. London, 1981), deputy manager of the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC; Šerkat-e mellī-e naft-e Īrān), in charge of international relations and marketing. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 2, pp. 171-172 FALLĀḤ, REŻĀ (b. 1328/1910, Kāšān; d. 1360 Š./1981, London), deputy manager of the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC; Šerkat-e mellī-e naft-e Īrān), in charge of international relations and marketing, “a shrewd man of affairs, the Shah used him as a behind-the-scenes negotiator wi…
Date: 2013-05-22
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