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MAJD, Loṭf-Allāh

(662 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
r player known for his brilliant virtuosity and distinctive style (1917-1978). MAJD, Loṭf-Allāh, the celebrated tār (a plucked long-necked lute) performer known for his brilliant virtuosity and distinctive style (b. Sāri, Māzandarān, 1296/1917; d. Tehran, 1357 Š./1978). Majd was fascinated with music from his early childhood, spending most of his time fiddling around with a battered old tār that he had found in the storage room of their house at the expense of attending to his school assignments. This caused his father to take the instrument away fr…
Date: 2012-11-21

FREEMASONRY

(12,189 words)

Author(s): Hasan Azinfar | M.-T. Eskandari, | Edward Joseph | Hamid Algar | EIr | Et al.
This famous fraternal order, bound by rituals and secret oaths, was introduced to Persia and adopted by Persian notables in the 19th century. It developed in the early 20th century and burgeoned in the period from 1950-78. Its practice still continues among some middle- and upper-class Persians in exile at the turn of the 21st century. The topic will be treated in five entries. A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 2, pp. 205-221 FREEMASONRY This famous fraternal order, bound by rituals and secret oaths, was introduced to Persia and adopted by P…
Date: 2013-05-29

HEKMAT, ʿALI-AṢḠAR

(4,319 words)

Author(s): EIr | Abbas Milani
man of letters, university professor, cabinet minister, and the chief architect of the modernization of the educational system under Reza Shah (1893-1980). Once Reza Shah decided to unveil Persian women, he placed Hekmat in charge of mapping out a plan of action, which included co-education in the first four years of elementary school. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 2, pp. 145-149 HEKMAT (Ḥekmat), ʿALI-AṢḠAR, man of letters, university professor, cabinet minister, and the chief architect of the modernization of the educational…
Date: 2013-06-07

GOLŠAHRI, SOLAYMĀN

(758 words)

Author(s): EIr
or GÜLŞEHRî; 13th century Ottoman Sufi and poet who wrote in Persian and Turkish. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 1, pp. 101-102 GOLŠAHRI (GÜLŞEHRÎ), SOLAYMĀN, Ottoman Sufi and poet who wrote in Persian and Turkish. He was from the city of Golšahri, the name of which appears on his works in Persian, and which is known today as Kırşehir. Next to nothing is known about his life; it, however, can be deduced from the dates of his works that he flourished during the second half of the 13th century and was alive until 717/1317, the year when he completed his Mantık’t-tay…
Date: 2013-06-04

JIROFT

(10,951 words)

Author(s): M. Badanj | EIr. | Eric Fouache | Oscar White Muscarella | Jean Perrot
sub-province ( šahrestān), town, and dam in Kerman Province. i. Geography. ii. Human geography and environment. iii. General survey of excavations. iv. Iconography of chlorite artifacts. A version of this article is available in print Volume XIV, Fascicle 6, pp. 646-664 JIROFT, name of a sub-provincial unit ( šahrestān), a town, and a dam in Kerman Province. JIROFT i. Geography of Jiroft Sub-Province Jiroft sub-province. Located in the south of Kerman Province, the sub-province of Jiroft is bound by those of Kermān (north), Bam (east), ʿAnbarābād and Kahnuj …
Date: 2012-04-18

ANJOMAN-E FALSAFA WA ʿOLŪM-E ENSĀNĪ

(234 words)

Author(s): EIr
(Iranian Society for Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences), formed in 1949 as a regional branch of the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences, a UNESCO affiliate. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 1, pp. 84 ANJOMAN-E FALSAFA WA ʿOLŪM-E ENSĀNĪ (Iranian Society for Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences) was formed in 1328 Š./1949 as a regional branch of the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences, a UNESCO affiliate, as proposed by Ḡ. ʿA. Raʿdī Aḏaraḵšī, then the Iranian r…
Date: 2013-02-13

ANJOMAN-E OḴOWWAT

(1,286 words)

Author(s): ʿA. Anwār | EIr
(or OḴŪWAT) “The Society of Brotherhood,” a non-political Sufi-type society officially founded on 15 Šabʿān 1317/21 December 1899 by Mīrzā ʿAlī Khan Ẓahīr-al-dawla to promote the ideals of equity and brotherhood in Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 1, pp. 88-89 ANJOMAN-E OḴOWWAT (or OḴŪWAT) “The Society of Brotherhood,” a non-political Sufi-type society officially founded on 15 Šabʿān 1317/21 December 1899 by Mīrzā ʿAlī Khan Ẓahīr-al-dawla to promote the ideals of equity and brotherhood in Iran. The soci…
Date: 2013-02-27

JAVĀNRUD

(1,090 words)

Author(s): ʿAbd-Allāh Marduḵ | EIr.
a city and a sub-province ( šahrestān) in the northwest of Kermānšāhān Province near the border with Iraq at about 110 km southwest of Sanandaj sub-province. A version of this article is available in print Volume XIV, Fascicle 6, pp. 601-602 JAVĀNRUD, a city and a sub-province ( šahrestān) in the northwest of Kermānšāhān Province near the border with Iraq at about 110 km southwest of Sanandaj sub-province. Apparently it is so called after the name of the Kurdish tribe Javānrud, a dominant tribe of the area in the past, which is now almost ent…
Date: 2012-04-13

ABU'L-QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN

(248 words)

Author(s): EIr
The only son of Kāmrān Mīrza, brother and rival of the Mughal emperor Homāyūn (r. 937-47, 962-63/1530-40, 1555-56). A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 4, pp. 357-358 ABU’L- QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN, MĪRZĀ, only son of Kāmrān Mīrzā, the brother and rival of the Mughal emperor Homāyūn (r. 937-47, 962-63/1530-40, 1555-56). An incident of symbolic significance, placed in the year 952/1545 (or 951/1544), is related in the Akbar-nāma (tr. I, pp. 455-56): The boys Abu’l-Qāsem and Akbar, sons of two rival princes, wrestle for possession of a kett…
Date: 2016-08-02

JĀRČI-E MELLAT

(996 words)

Author(s): EIr.
a weekly satirical newspaper published in Tehran, 1910-28 (with long interruptions). A version of this article is available in print Volume XIV, Fascicle 6, pp. 581-582 JĀRČI-E MELLAT, a weekly satirical paper published in Tehran with long interruptions between 12 Šawwāl 1328/16 October 1910 and 8 Ḵordād 1307 Š./29 May 1928. It was suspended on numerous occasions, and the two papers, Jārči-e asrār (2 Ḏu’l-ḥejja 1329/23 Nov. 1911) and Jāsus (22 Rabiʿ I 1332/18 Feb. 1914; Ṣadr Hāšemi, II, p. 161), that were published as replacements were immediately banned. In the …
Date: 2012-04-13

ARSACIDS

(17,321 words)

Author(s): Shahbazi, A. Shapur | Schippmann, Klaus | Alram, Michael | Boyce, Mary | EIr. | Et al.
(Persian Aškānīān), Parthian dynasty which ruled Iran from about 250 BCE to about 226 CE. A version of this article is available in printVolume II, Fascicle 5, pp. 525-546 ARSACIDS (Persian Aškānīān), Parthian dynasty which ruled Iran from about 250 BCE to about 226 CE.i. Origins.ii. The Arsacid dynasty.iii. Arsacid coinage.iv. Arsacid religion.v. The “Arsacid” era.vi. Arsacid chronology in traditional history.vii. The Arsacid dynasty of Armenia.viii. Military Architecture Of Parthia.ARSACIDS i. OriginsOur sources on the ancestry of the eponymous founder of the dyn…
Date: 2022-02-17

ʿEBRAT

(576 words)

Author(s): EIr
a monthly magazine first published on 4 February 1956 as the organ of Tūda party prisoners under the auspices and with the facilities of the Office of Tehran’s Military Governor, General Teymūr Baḵtīār. A version of this article is available in print Volume VIII, Fascicle 1, pp. 79 ʿEBRAT, a monthly magazine first published on 15 Bahman 1334 Š./4 February 1956 as the organ of Tūda party prisoners under the auspices and with the facilities of the Office of Tehran’s Military Governor, General Teymūr Baḵtīār. Its format was thirty-eight, and lat…
Date: 2014-01-08

EUTYCHIUS of Alexandria

(1,015 words)

Author(s): Sidney H. Griffith | EIr
(877-940), Christian physician and historian whose Annales (written in Arabic and called Ketāb al-tārīḵ al-majmūʿ ʿalā’l-taḥqīq wa’l-taṣdīq or Naẓm al-jawhar) is a rich repository of much otherwise unobtainable information about the history of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, especially in the periods of Persian occupation in the seventh century and in Islamic times up to the early tenth century. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 1, pp. 77-78 EUTYCHIUS of Alexandria (Saʿīd b. Beṭrīq), Christian physician and historian whose Annales (written in Arab…
Date: 2013-05-06

CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS

(46,156 words)

Author(s): Pulleyblank, Edwin G. | Rogers, John Michael | Yingsheng, Liu | Mohajer, Parviz | Balland, Daniel | Et al.
This series of articles deals with Chinese-Iranian relations spanning from Pre-Islamic times to the Constitutional Revolution in Iran.A version of this article is available in printVolume V, Fascicle 4;5, pp. 424-460i. In Pre-Islamic TimesContact between China and Iran was initiated toward the end of the 2nd century B.C.E. by the envoy Chang Ch’ien (Zhang Qian), who journeyed to the west in search of the Yüeh-chih (Yue-zhi), a people that had migrated from the borders of China after having been defeated by the Hsiung-nu (Xiongn…
Date: 2021-12-16

DĪN MOḤAMMAD KHAN

(133 words)

Author(s): EIr
b. Olūs Khan, the Uzbek prince who, with his brother ʿAlī Solṭān, joined Shah Ṭahmāsb’s camp in 943/1536-37 during the latter’s campaign in Khorasan against ʿObayd-Allāh Khan, the Uzbek ruler of Bukhara. A version of this article is available in print Volume VII, Fascicle 4, pp. 411-412 DĪNMOḤAMMAD KHAN b. Olūs Khan, the Uzbek prince who, with his brother ʿAlī Solṭān, joined Shah Ṭahmāsb’s camp in 943/1536-37 during the latter’s campaign in Khorasan against ʿObayd-Allāh Khan, the Uzbek ruler of Bukhara. He was given the governorship of Nesā a…
Date: 2013-04-17

ĀSRŌN

(100 words)

Author(s): EIr
Middle Persian form of Avestan āΘravan. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 802-803 ĀSRŌN, Middle Persian form of Avestan āΘravan. The form āsrōn continues Av. āΘrauuanəm (acc. sing.) whereas the also attested form āsrō (Pahlavi Videvdād and Vispred, Pazand āsrū) is most likely to continue āΘrauua (nom. sing.), cf. Pazand āšo for Av. ašauua (Pahl. ahlaw). In Middle Persian texts āsrōn designates a member of the priestly class and is almost invariably mentioned together with artēštār and wāstaryōš, members of the warrior and farmer classes. See also…
Date: 2016-10-03

CENTRAL ASIA

(75,713 words)

Author(s): EIr | Richard H. Rowland | Richard N. Frye | C. Edmund Bosworth | Bertold Spuler | Et al.
This series of articles covers Central Asia. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 2, pp. 159 CENTRAL ASIA (See also Archeology v, vii; Architecture iv; Art in Iran vi, viii.) CENTRAL ASIA i. Geographical Survey The central expanse of the Asian continent, the land mass situated approximately between 55° and 115° E and 25° and 50° N, comprises two geographically distinct areas. The western part includes the Transcaspian plains and the low tablelands between the Aral Sea and the Tien Shan (lit. “heavenly moun…
Date: 2017-11-08

FARHANG-E MOʿĪN

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Kamran Talattof | EIr
an important Persian encyclopaedic dictionary published in six volumes in Tehran between 1963 and 1973. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 3, pp. 268-270 FARHANG-E MOʿĪN, an important Persian encyclopaedic dictionary published in six volumes in Tehran between 1963 and 1973. Most of the work was compiled by the eminent Persian scholar and lexicographer Moḥammad Moʿīn (1918-71). His work on lexicography began in 1946 with his collaboration with ʿAlī-Akbar Dehḵodā (q.v.) on the monumental Persian encyclopedic dictionary Loḡat-nāma. Later, he prepa…
Date: 2013-05-26

KĀK

(918 words)

Author(s): Etrat Elahi | Eir.
a general term applied to several kinds of flat bread or small, often thin, dry cakes variously shaped and made. A version of this article is available in print Volume XV, Fascicle 4, pp. 352-353 KĀK, a general term applied to several kinds of flat bread or small, often thin, dry cakes variously shaped and made, and therefore differently defined in dictionaries and cookbooks. The earliest source which mentions kāk is perhaps Asrār al-tawḥid, where one reads of Shaikh Abu Saʿid (d. 1048, q.v.) sending his servant to “a kāk-pazi,” similar to a bakery, to buy a large quantity of kāk, a…
Date: 2012-10-16

CHILDREN

(20,905 words)

Author(s): Jenny Rose | Mahmoud Omidsalar | Mansour Shaki | Shirin Ebadi | Erika Friedl | Et al.
This series of articles covers children and child-rearing in Iran and Iranian lands. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 4, pp. 403-423 CHILDREN i. Childbirth in Zoroastrianism The Zoroastrian community has traditionally regarded marriage as having a threefold function: to propagate the human race, to spread the Zoroastrian faith, and to contribute to the victory of the good cause (Sanjana, p. 508). The birth of a child is viewed as of intrinsic benefit to the whole community because it furthers e…
Date: 2013-06-11
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