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GREAT BRITAIN

(85,918 words)

Author(s): EIr | Denis Wright | Abbas Amanat | Mansour Bonakdarian | Stephanie Cronin | Et al.
OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Introduction, ii. An Overview of Relations: Safavid to the Present, iii. British influence in Persia in the 19th century, iv. British influence in Persia, 1900-21, v. British influence during the Reżā Shah period, 1921-41, vi. British influence in Persia, 1941-79, vii. British Travelers to Persia, viii. British Archeological Excavations, ix. Iranian Studies in Britian, Pre-Islamic, x. Iranian Studies in Britain, the Islamic Period, xi. Persian Art Collections in Britain…
Date: 2013-06-04

KALLAJUŠ

(654 words)

Author(s): Etrat Elahi & EIr.
an old Iranian dish, also pronounced kālajuš, kālājuš, kaljuš in different parts of Iran. The compound term kāljuš is composed of kālmeaning unripe, connoting cooked rare, and juš (boiling). A version of this article is available in print Volume XV, Fascicle 4, pp. 408-409 KALLAJUŠ (KĀLJUŠ), an old Iranian dish, also pronounced kālajuš, kālājuš, kaljuš in different parts of Iran. It consists of fried onions, dried herbs, and boiled kašk (dried condensed whey), eaten with bread (crumbled or in pieces). The compound term kāljuš is composed of kāl meaning unripe, connoting cooked rar…
Date: 2012-10-18

KASHAN

(46,476 words)

Author(s): Zanjani, Habibollah | Planhol, Xavier de | Amanat, Mehrdad | Haeri, Mohammad-Reza | EIr. | Et al.
historical city and a sub-province of the province of Isfahan on the north-south axial route of central Iran.A version of this article is available in printVolume XVI, pp. 1-73blod: KASHAN (Kāšān) a historic city and a sub-province ( šahrestān) of the province of Isfahan (q.v.) on the north-south axial route of central Iran. The city (lat 33° 59ʹ 30ʹʹ N, long 51° 27ʹ 00ʹʹ E; elev. 950 m) is located 260 km (189 km by air) south of Tehran and 220 km (146 km by air) north of Isfahan. KASHAN i. Geography Physical geography. Covering an area of approximately 9,647 km2, the sub-province …
Date: 2022-03-23

DARIUS

(12,974 words)

Author(s): Rudiger Schmitt | Richard N. Frye | A. Shapur Shahbazi | Heleen Sanchisi-Weerdenburg | EIr. | Et al.
(NPers. Darīūš, Dārā), name of several Achaemenid and Parthian rulers and princes. A version of this article is available in print Volume VII, Fascicle 1, pp. 40-55 DARIUS i. The Name Dārīus (or Dārēus) is the common Latin form of Greek Dareîos, itself a shortened rendering of Old Persian five-syllable Dārayavauš (spelled d-a-r-y-v-u-š), the throne name of Darius the Great and two other kings of the Achaemenid dynasty (see iii-v, below), which thus enjoyed considerable popularity among noblemen in later periods (see vi-viii, below). The original …
Date: 2013-06-25

KĀSEMI, NOṢRAT-ALLĀH

(1,804 words)

Author(s): Mostafa Alamouti | EIr.
(1908-1996), physician, poet, writer, orator, and politician. A version of this article is available in print Volume XV, Fascicle 6, pp. 661-663 KĀSEMI, NOṢRAT-ALLĀH (b. Tehran, 1908; d. Tehran 1996; Figure 1), physician, poet, writer, orator, and politician. The first of three children born to Mirzā Asad-Allāh Khan Kāsemi, a court official and head of a landowning family in Mazandaran, he earned a diploma from Dār al-Fonun (q.v.) in 1929, and graduated from Tehran medical school in 1935 with a first order national science medallion (ʿĀqeli, III, p. 1252; Movaḥḥedi, p. 56). Academic an…
Date: 2012-11-07

FESTIVALS

(21,095 words)

Author(s): Boyce, Mary | Sundermann, Werner | Betteridge, Anne H. | EIr. | Kreyenbroek, Philip G. | Et al.
This article discusses religious or communal festivals and commemorations, ancient and modern, of diverse communities in Persia and Afghanistan. A version of this article is available in printVolume IX, Fascicle 5, 6, pp. 542-564 FESTIVALS. This article treats mainly religious or communal festivals and commemorations in Persia and Afghanistan. For specific festivals and secular celebrations, see under individual entries.FESTIVALS i. ZOROASTRIANZoroastrian festivals fall into two broad categories. There are the seven feasts of obligation, that is, No Rōz (Nowrūz) and the six g…
Date: 2021-07-20

GIFT GIVING

(12,259 words)

Author(s): EIr | Josef Wiesehöfer | Rudi P. Matthee | Willem Floor
various aspects of gift giving in Persia. A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 6, pp. 604-617 blod:GIFT GIVING in Persia. The following articles constitute a preliminary attempt at studying various aspects of gift giving in a chronological and historical framework, from the pre-Islamic era to the early modern period. An anthropological approach, dealing with the practice of gift exchange in local communities, tribal clans, villages, extended families, neighborhoods, and urban quarters nee…
Date: 2016-09-01

KAYHAN

(3,448 words)

Author(s): EIr.
a leading daily newspaper published in Tehran from 1942 until the 1979 Revolution. Since then, it has been published under the patronage of the Islamic Republic’s supreme leader. Kayhan of London was foundedin 1984 as a weekly newspaper; it has continued to be published as a monarchist newspaper for Iranians in Diaspora. A version of this article is available in print Volume XVI, Fascicle 2, pp. 176-180 KAYHAN ( Kayhān, lit., “the universe”), a leading daily newspaper published in Tehran under the aegis of Moṣṭafā Meṣbāḥzādeh (1908-2006) from 1942 until the 1979 …
Date: 2015-04-21

MARĀ BEBUS

(568 words)

Author(s): Morteza Hosayni Dehkordi | EIr.
(Kiss me), the title of one of the most popular songs ( taṣnif) of mid-twentieth century Iran. MARĀ BEBUS (Kiss me), the title of one of the most popular songs ( taṣnif) of mid-twentieth century Iran. Its music was composed by Majid Vafādār and its lyrics by Ḥaydar Reqābi (Hāla); it was sung by Ḥasan Golnarāqi. As a student, Reqābi was a member of the National Front and a strong supporter of Moḥammad Moṣaddeq (q.v.). After the coup d’état of August 1953, he went into hiding but was eventually allowed to leave the country and go into exile. When Reqāb…
Date: 2012-11-27

GORGĀN

(19,573 words)

Author(s): Ḥabib-Allāh Zanjāni | Eckart Ehlers | Muhammad Yusof Kiani | A. D. H. Bivar | C. Edmund Bosworth | Et al.
OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Geography, ii. Dašt-e Gorgān, iii. Population, iv. Archeology, v. Pre-Islamic history, vi. History from the rise of Islam to the beginning of the Safavid Period, vii. To the end of the Pahlavi era. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 2, pp. 139-154 GORGĀN i. Geography GORGĀN, the ancient Hyrcania, an important Persian province at the southeast corner of the Caspian sea. In June 1997, the eastern part of the Māzandarān Province, consisting of the two sub-provinces of Gorgān and Gonbad-e Kāvus/Qābus (formerly c…
Date: 2017-04-10

ḴALḴĀLI, Sayyed ʿAbd-al-Raḥim

(2,291 words)

Author(s): Hūšang Etteḥād | EIr
Ḵalḵāli remained, to the end of his life, a loyal member of the democratic current and a close confidant of Sayyed Ḥasan Taqizādeh, the leader of the Social Democratic Party (Ferqa-ye ejtemāʿiyun-e ʿāmmiyun) in the First Majles (1906-08), and later of Iran’s Democrat Party (Ferqa-ye demokrāt-e Irān) in the Second Majles. A version of this article is available in print Volume XV, Fascicle 4, pp. 405-408 ḴALḴĀLI, SAYYED ʿABD-al-RAḤIM (b. Ḵalḵāl, ca. 1872; d. Tehran, 20 June 1942), well-known constitutionalist, journalist, government official, bookseller, and pub…
Date: 2014-01-03

HOMOSEXUALITY

(13,727 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø | E. K. Rowson | EIr
OVERVIEW of the entry: i. In Zoroastrianism. ii. In Islamic law. iii. In Persian literature. iv. In modern Persia. See Supplement. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 4, 6, pp. 440-448 HOMOSEXUALITY i. IN ZOROASTRIANISM Zoroastrian literature contains discussions of personal relations only in legal contexts and is quite explicit with regard to sins of a sexual nature, including between males. The information about “homosexuality” contained in this literature is restricted to anal intercourse, as defined in the Videvdad (8.32): “When a man releas…
Date: 2013-06-10

YEKI BUD, YEKI NABUD

(2,515 words)

Author(s): EIr
the first collection of modern Persian short stories, and, arguably the foremost work by the eminent fiction writer Mohammad Ali Jamalzadeh (1892-1997). YEKI BUD, YEKI NABUD (Berlin, 1921, tr. by Mansur Heshmat Moyyad and Paul Sprachman as Once Upon a Time, New York, 1985), the first collection of modern Persian short stories, and, arguably the foremost work by the eminent fiction writer Mohammad Ali Jamalzadeh (Moḥammad ʿAli Jamālzāda, also Djamalzadeh, 1892-1997) The title of the collection, generally regarded as representing a departure from the classic genre of…
Date: 2013-01-22

KASRAVI, AḤMAD

(18,846 words)

Author(s): Ali Reżā Manafzadeh | Moḥammad Amini | Alireza Manafzadeh | Mohammad Amini | Lloyd Ridgeon | Et al.
influential social thinker, prominent historian, a pioneer of Iran’s linguistic studies, well-known social and religious reformer with a sense of prophetic mission, and prolific author. A version of this article is available in print Volume XVI, Fascicle 1, pp. 87-105 blod:KASRAVI, AḤMAD (b. Tabriz, 29 September 1890; d. Tehran, 11 March 1946; Figure 1), influential social thinker, prominent historian, a pioneer of Iran’s linguistic studies, well-known social and religious reformer with a sense of prophetic mission, and prolific author. KASRAVI, AḤMAD i. LIFE AND WORK Early life.…
Date: 2016-01-28

TAFT

(763 words)

Author(s): EIr | Ali Modarres
town and district in Yazd province. TAFT, town and district in Yazd province. The town is located 20 km southwest of Yazd, on the road to Abarquh, at an altitude of 1,560 m. The district, formerly known as Piškuh, is an arid piedmont consisting of the rural districts of Piškuh, Šurkuh, ʿAliābād, Naṣrābād, Dehšir, Bonādkuk, Zardin, Saḵvid, Garizāt, and Kahduʾiya (Razmārā, Farhang X, p. 48; Moṣāḥab, p. 650; Jaʿfari, p. 293). An early mention of Taft is found in the 15th century; it was known for its pleasant climate, water, and produce, especially pomegranates and gr…
Date: 2013-01-17

MAḤJUBI, Morteżā

(1,076 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
(1900-1965), composer and pianist, noted for his use of the piano to perform traditional Iranian music. MAḤJUBI, MORTEŻĀ (b. Tehran, 1279 Š./1900; d. Tehran, 1 Farvardin 1344 Š./21 March 1965), celebrated composer and performer of the piano. He was a self-educated and innovative piano player who was renowned for his masterful utilization of the piano in performing traditional Iranian music. Maḥjubi’s father, ʿAbbās-ʿAli Nāẓer, had artistic talent and played the Ney (an end-blown flute); and his mother, Faḵr-al-Sādāt, knew how to play the piano. This very…
Date: 2015-12-21

OUSELEY, William

(1,113 words)

Author(s): Peter Avery | EIr
(1767-1842), officer and orientalist. OUSELEY, Sir William, officer and orientalist (b. 1767 in Monmouthshire, Wales; d. September 1842, Boulogne, France). He was the elder brother of the entrepreneur, diplomat, and orientalist Sir Gore Ouseley (1770-1844; q.v.) and a cousin of the Methodist preacher and missionary Gideon Ouseley (1762-1839). The Ouseleys were an Anglo-Irish family, and the brothers William and Gore were educated privately together with their cousin Gideon. In 1787, the brothers left Wales. While Gore became an entrepreneur i…
Date: 2012-11-09

QAṢRĀN

(1,260 words)

Author(s): Giti Deyhim | EIr.
a historical region located north of present-day Tehran. QAṢRĀN, a historical region located north of present-day Tehran, consisting of the upper Jājrud river valley (Inner Qaṣrān) and Šemirānāt as well as Tehran itself (Outer Qaṣrān). Qaṣrān has been populated since pre-historical times. Artifacts dated from three to six thousand years ago have been excavated from its ancient burials and other sites. The invading Muslims conquered Ray (q.v.) and Damāvand in the early Omayyad period. Nevertheless, the habitants of the mountainous…
Date: 2017-05-30

LAVĀSĀN

(576 words)

Author(s): Giti Deyhim | EIr.
a town and district northwest of Tehran. LAVĀSĀN, town and district located in the middle course of the river Jājrud in the northwest of Tehran. The district ( baḵš), officially known as Lavāsānāt, constitutes, along with Rudbār-e Qaṣrān, the sub-province of Šemirān in the Tehran province. Lavāsānāt comprises two rural districts ( dehestāns), Greater Lavāsān and Lesser Lavāsān—thus the plural form “Lavāsānāt.” The administrative center of Lavāsānāt is the town of Lavāsān, situated at lat 35.8° N, long 51.6° E, elev. 1,700 m. The district of Lavāsānāt spreads approximately 600 …
Date: 2017-11-06

FARZĀN, Sayyed Moḥammad

(779 words)

Author(s): EIr
(b. near Birjand, 1894; d. Bābolsar, 1970), an eminent scholar of classical literature. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 4, pp. 386 FARZĀN, Sayyed MOḤAMMAD (b. near Brijand, 1273 Š./1894; d. Bābolsar, 23 Farvardin 1349 Š./11 April 1970), an eminent scholar of classical literature. Farzān received his elementary education from his father, who died while Sayyed Mohammad was eleven years old. Farzān and his mother and brother left their village for Brijand, where Sayyed Moḥammad went to the …
Date: 2013-05-27
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