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G̲h̲anīmat Kund̲j̲āhī

(298 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Muḥammad Akram , poet of Mug̲h̲al India and exponent of the “Indian style” ( sabk- i hindī [ q.v.]) in the Persian poetry of the subcontinent. He was born at an unknown date in the first half of the 11th/17th century at Kund̲j̲āh, a small village in the Gud̲j̲rāt district of the northern Pand̲j̲āb (now in Pakistan). He was an adherent of the Ṣūfī order of the Ḳādiriyya [ q.v.], but apart from stays in Kas̲h̲mīr, Dihlī and Lahore, did not go very far from his native village, where he died in ca. 1106/1695. His works comprise a Dīwān , mainly of g̲h̲azal s, and a mat̲h̲nawī poem…

Lalitpur

(220 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a town in the Bundelkhand region of Central India, administratively in the southwards-protruding tongue of the former United Provinces, Uttar Pradesh of the Indian Union. It is situated in lat. 24° 42′ N. and long. 78° 28′ E. on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway and on the Kānpūr (Cawnpore)—Saugor road. Tradition ascribes its foundation to Lalitā, wife of a Deccani Rād̲j̲ā, and till the early 16th century it was held by the Gonds. In the…

al-Nāṣiriyya

(161 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a town of southern modem ʿIrāḳ and the chef-lieu of the governorate of D̲h̲ū Ḳār. It is situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, above the Hawr al-Ḥammār of the marshlands [see al-baṭīḥa ], some 177 km/110 miles to the northwest of Baṣra (lat. 31°04′ N., long. 46°17′ E.). The town was founded ca. 1870 by the paramount chief of the Muntafiḳ [ q.v.] confederation, Nāṣir Saʿdān Pas̲h̲a, who aided the administration of Midḥat Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] in extending Ottoman Turkish influence over this largely S̲h̲īʿī region against local tribal interests. In July 1915 it was capture…

Nāwūsiyya

(164 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Nawūsiyya , the name of an extremist S̲h̲īʿī sect ( rawāfiḍ ) attached to a certain Ibn Nāwūs or Ibn Nawus (sometimes changed into Ibn Mānūs), whose personal name varies according to the sources (ʿAd̲j̲lān, ʿAbd Allāh, Ḥamlān, etc.), or else attached to a place in the vicinity of Hīt called Nāwūsa (see Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 72, 217; al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 179: Yāḳūt, s.v.; al-Idrīsī, index; Le Strange, Lands , 64-5). The Nāwūsiyya were characterised by the idea (sometimes attributed to the caliph Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr, 138-58/754-75 [ q.v.]) that the imām

ʿAnāḳ

(109 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name given by the Arabs to the daughter of Adam, the twin sister of Seth, wife of Cain and mother of ʿŪd̲j̲ [ q.v.]; see Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Tarbīʿ (Pellat) index.—In zoology, ʿanāḳ denotes a kind of lynx, the caracal (from the Turkish ḳara ḳulaḳ "black-ear", Persian siyāh gūs̲h̲ ) found in much of Asia and Africa, which is thought to walk in front of the lion and, by its cry, to announce the latter’s approach.—In astronomy, ʿAnāḳ al-Banāt is the ζ of the Great Bear, and ʿAnāḳ al-Arḍ , ϒ Andromedae; see A. Benhamouda, Les Noms arabes des étoiles , in AIEO, Algiers, ix, 1951, 84, 97. (Ed.)

Ibn Ḥayyūs

(253 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Fityān Muḥammad b. Sulṭan b. Muḥammad b. Ḥayyūs al-G̲h̲anawī , Syrian poet of the 5th/11th century. Born at Damascus in Ṣafar 394/December 1003, he seems to have been at first attached to the Banū ʿAmmār [see ʿammār ] of Tripoli in Syria, although he is referred to as being in Aleppo in 429/1037-8; his sympathy with the Fāṭimids of Egypt caused him to fall out of favour with the Banū ʿAmmār, who had become independent, and in 464/1072 he was summoned to Aleppo by the Mirdāsid [ q.v.] Maḥmūd b. Naṣr (457-67/1065-75), in whose praise he began to write. On the death of his patron, he wrote a mart̲…

al-Marwazī

(92 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Sukkarī , Arabic poet of Marw, floruit later 4th/10th or early 5th/11th century. Al-T̲h̲aʿālibī quotes specimens of his light-hearted and witty poetry, and also of an interesting muzdawad̲j̲a in which he turned Persian proverbs into Arabic rad̲j̲az couplets, a conceit said to be one of his favourite activities. (Ed.) Bibliography T̲h̲aʿālibī, Yatīma, Damascus 1304/1886-7, iv, 22-5, Cairo 1375-7/1956-8, iv, 87-90 C. Barbier de Meynard, Tableau littéraire du Khorassan et de la Transoxiane au IV e siècle de l’hégire, in JA, Ser. 5, i (1853), 205-7.

al-Suwaynī

(83 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Saʿd b. ʿĀlī Bā Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (d. 857/1453), ʿAlawī sayyid of Ḥaḍramawt. He was the student of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bā ʿAlawī of Tarīm, from the Saḳḳāf branch of the sayyids [see bā ʿalawī ], and in turn the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of Abū Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿAydarūs, the patron saint of Aden [see ʿadan ], d. 914/1508 [see ʿaydarūs ]. It was this last who was to compose the manāḳib of al-Suwaynī. (Ed.) Bibliography See R.B. Serjeant, The Saiyids of Hadramawt, London 1957.

K̲h̲umayn

(91 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a small town in the province of Ḳum in modern Iran (lat. 33° 38′ N., long. 50° 03′ E.) some 70 km/42 miles to the south-southeast of Arāk/Sulṭānābād [ q.v.]. It is unmentioned in the mediaeval Islamic geographers, but now has fame as the birthplace of the Āyatallāh Rūḥ Allāh K̲h̲umaynī (1902-89 [ q.v. in Suppl.]). It is at present administratively in the s̲h̲ahrastān of Maḥallāt. In ca. 1950 it had a population of 7,038, which in 2003 had risen to 59,300. ¶ (Ed.) Bibliography Razmārā (ed.), Farhang-i d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Īrānzamīn, i, 81-2.

K̲h̲unāṣira

(313 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, an ancient fortified settlement situated some 60 km. to the south-east of Aleppo and 100 km. to the north-east of Ḥamāt, on a route through the desert—on the fringes of which it lies—connecting Aleppo with Bag̲h̲dād. The foundation of the place is attributed to K̲h̲unāsir(a) b. ʿAmr of the Banū Kināna (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 290 and ii, 349), but it is probably older than this. Yāḳūt (s.v.), who cites also al-K̲h̲unāṣir b. ʿAmr, the representative of Abraha al-As̲h̲ram, may be echoing a later legend. In the Umayyad period, this chef-lieu of the kūra of al-Aḥaṣ…

Çakmak

(401 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mustafa Fevzi , also called Kavak̲lı, marshal in the Turkish army. Born in Istanbul in 1876, he was the son of an artillery colonel. He entered the war academy (Harbiye, [ q.v.]) where he became a lieutenant in 1895, joined the staff course, and was gazetted as a staff captain in 1898. After spending some time on the general staff, he was posted to Rumelia where he became successively a Colonel, divisional commander, and Army Corps Chief of Staff. He served on the staff of the army of the Vardar during the Balkan War, and du…

Īlāf

(678 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḳurʾānic term (CVI, 1-2) which probably refers to economic relations entered into by the Ḳurays̲h̲īs well before the advent of Islam, but which presents problems of reading and interpretation which are not easily solved. In the first place, this Sūra CVI, which is very short and certainly very early (no. 3 in the classification by R. Blachère), begins abruptly, after the basmala , with the words li-īlāfi Ḳurays̲h̲in īlāfihim riḥlata ’l-s̲h̲itāʾi wa ’l-ṣayfi , which may be translated as: “because of the īlāf of the Ḳurays̲h̲īs, [of] their īlāf of the journey of winter and of summer…

al-G̲h̲azzāl

(380 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. al-Mahdī al-G̲h̲azzāl al-Andalusī al-Malaḳī , the secretary of the sultan of Morocco Sīdī Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh (1171-1204/1757-89), who entrusted to him various diplomatic missions. In 1179/1766 he was the head of a delegation sent to negotiate an exchange of captives with Charles III of Spain; he was received with great honour in Madrid, and was able to return to Morocco with a Spanish mission which made a peace treaty with the sultan and an agreement abo…

Ibrāhīm b. Sayāba

(242 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, minor poet of the second half of the 2nd/8th century who died circa 193/809. Of obscure origin and a mawlā of the ʿAbbāsids, he held, according to Ibn al-Muʿtazz, the office of secretary to al-Mahdī but, having once been suspected of zandaḳa , he was dismissed and obliged to beg for a living. Like so many of his contemporaries, he led a disorganized and even dissolute life, but he was not lacking in wit, to judge by the anecdotes of which he is the hero. Ibn al-Muʿtazz described him as a born ( maṭbūʿ ) poet, while the author of the Ag̲h̲ānī has a different opinion of him…

Rustam b. Farruk̲h̲ Hurmuzd

(214 words)

Author(s): ed.
(thus in al-Ṭabarī; in al-Masʿūdī, b. Farruk̲h̲-zād), Persian general and commander of the Sāsanid army at the battle of al-Ḳādisiyya [ q.v.] fought against the Arabs in Muḥarram 15/February-March 536 or Muḥarram 16/February 637, the battle in which he was killed. His father is described as the ispabad̲h̲ [ q.v.] of K̲h̲urāsān, for which province Rustam was deputy. In the lengthy account by al-Ṭabarī of the battle of al-Ḳādisiyya, derived mainly from Sayf b. ʿUmar, there is much folkloric material, doubdess derived from materials used by the ḳuṣṣāṣ [see ḳāṣṣ ], …

Ibn Ḥamādu

(357 words)

Author(s): Ed.
( Ibn Ḥammād ), Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥammād b. ʿĪsā b. ʿAbī Bakr al-Ṣanhād̲j̲ī , a Berber ḳāḍī and historian related to the Banū Ḥammād [ q.v.] and a native of a village near their Ḳalʿa [ q.v.]. After studying at the Ḳalʿa and in Bougie, he was ḳāḍī of Algeciras and Salé (unless there is some confusion on the part of the writer of the Mafāk̲h̲ir al-Barbar (65), who gives him the kunya of Abu ’l-Ḥasan, he was also ḳāḍī of Azammūr in 616/1219), and he died in 628/1231. His Kitāb al-Nubad̲h̲ al-muḥtād̲j̲a fī ak̲h̲bār mulūk Ṣanhād̲j̲a bi-Ifrīḳiya wa-Bid̲j̲āya , whi…

ʿİtḳnāme

(130 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿi̊ti̊ḳnāme , also ʿi̊tāḳnāme , an Ottoman term for a certificate of manumission, given to a liberated slave [see ʿabd ]. The document normally gives the name and physical description, often also the religion and ethnie origin of the slave, together with the date and circumstances of his manumission, and is dated, signed, witnessed, and registered. The issue of such certificates goes back to early Islamic times (for examples see A. Grohmann, Arabic papyri in the Egyptian library, i, Cairo 1934, 61-4; idem, Arabische Papyri aus den Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin , in Isl

Mās̲h̲āʾ Allāh

(416 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a phrase occurring in the Ḳurʾān (VI, 128; VII, 188; X, 50; XVIII, 37; LXXXVII, 7; cf. XI, 109-10, LXXII, 8) and widely used in the Islamic lands of the Middle East with the general meaning of “what God does, is well done”. The formula denotes that things happen according to God’s will and should therefore be accepted with humility and resignation. In a cognate signification, the phrase is often used to indicate a vague, generally a great or considerable, but some times a small, number or quantity of time (Lane, Lexicon , s.v., who refers to S. de Sacy, Relation de l’Egypte, 246, 394). One …

Kanbō

(77 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Kambō , S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ D̲j̲amālī , Suhrawardī Ṣūfī saint of early 10th/16th century Muslim India, who died in 941/1534-5 during the reign of the Mug̲h̲al ruler Humāyūn [ q.v.] and was buried at Mihrawlī. His son Gadāʾī [see gadāʾī kambō, in Suppl.], whom D̲j̲amālī had in his lifetime made his k̲h̲alīfa or spiritual successor within the Suhrawardī order, achieved equal religious influence at the courts of Humāyūn and then Akbar. (Ed.) Bibliography See that to gadāʾī kambō.

Istiḳlāl

(331 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, an Arabic verbal noun, from the tenth form of the root ḳ-l-l . In Classical and Middle Arabic this form is used with a variety of meanings (see Dozy and other dictionaries), and especially to convey the notion of separate, detached, unrestricted, not shared, or sometimes even arbitrary. It occurs occasionally in a political context— e.g., of a dynasty, a region, a people or a city quarter not effectively subject to some higher authority. Such occurrences are, however, rare, and the word was in no sense a political technical term. In Ottoman officia…
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