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al-Ṣag̲h̲ānī

(89 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿAbd al-Muʾmin b. Ḥasan, adīb , floruit during the 7th/13th century. ¶ He is noted only for his poetic version of the animal fable collection, originally translated into Arabic by Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ [ q.v.], Kalīla wa-Dimna [ q.v.]. This version he called Durrat al-ḥikam fī amt̲h̲āl al-Hunūd wa ’l-ʿAd̲j̲am , and he completed it on 20 D̲j̲umādā 640/15 November 1242 (according to the Vienna ms.) or possibly some 25 years later (according to the other extant ms. of Munich); see Brockelmann, S I, 234-5. (Ed.) Bibliography Given in the article.

Müstet̲h̲na Eyāletler

(125 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), literally, “excepted, separated”, denoting those provinces of the Ottoman empire separated from the “normallyadministered” ones of the Anatolian and Rumelian heartland. In the heyday of the empire (10th-12th/16th-18th centuries) these usually comprised such provinces as Ṣaydā, Aleppo, Bag̲h̲dād. Baṣra, Mawṣil, Ṭarābulus al-G̲h̲arb, Beng̲h̲azi, Ḥid̲j̲āz and Yemen, i.e., essentially those of the more recentlyconquered Arab lands. Since the feudal system of tīmārs and ziʿāmets hardly existed there, taxation from these regions was collected by a local office, müfred ül…

Rōh

(84 words)

Author(s): ed.
, the generic name, used by local western Pand̲j̲ābīs and Balūč for the tract of northwestern India extending southwards from Swāt and Bad̲j̲awr in the north and up to the Sulaymān Mountains in the west. It was significant in the history of the later 9th/15th century and early 10th/16th century as a region from which the Lōdī [ q.v.] sultans of Dihlī drew many of their Afg̲h̲ān supporters. (Ed.) Bibliography Sir Olaf Caroe, The Pathans 550 B.C.-A.D. 1957, London 1958, index. See also rohilk̲h̲and.

Mīrg̲h̲aniyya

(1,037 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or k̲h̲atmiyya , the dervish order or ṭarīḳa founded by Muḥammad ʿUt̲h̲mān al-Mīrg̲h̲anī, more commonly called the K̲h̲atmiyya from its founder’s claim that it is the seal ( k̲h̲atm ) of all ṭarīḳas . The nisba of the founder does not appear in such works as al-Samʿānī’s K. al-Ansāb or al-Suyūṭī’s Lubb al-albāb , but may be derived from the place-name Marg̲h̲an in Ghūr, for family traditions attest to a long residence in Central Asia. The prefixed A- is a Western form due to a supposed derivation from al-amīr al-g̲h̲anī . Towards the end of the 18th century, the family, after a short …

Ḳanbāniya

(302 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(also kanbāniya , with kanfāniya once attested in the Calendrier de Cordoue ), from Spanish campaña , in general denotes in Spanish Arabic usage, the countryside, but in particular the Campiña, sc. the vast, gently-undulating plain which forms the southern part of the kūra of Cordova; al-Idrīsī, Description de lAfrique et de lEspagne , ed. and tr. Dozy-De Goeje, 174, 209, makes it an iḳlim whose capital was Cordova and its main towns al-Zahrāʾ, Ecija, Baena, Cabra and Lucena. After leaving the capital, the approach to it was first thr…

Ṭop

(120 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the term used in Ottoman Turkish military terminology for cannon, with ṭopd̲j̲u denoting a member of the corps of artillerymen and Ṭopk̲h̲āne being the name for the central arsenal in Istanbul. The Ṭopk̲h̲āne Gate there has given its name, in popular parlance, to the adjacent imperial palace; see ṭopḳapi̊ sarāyi̊ . The word tob / top originally in Turkish denoted “ball”, hence cannon-ball; it appears in almost all the Turkic languages and passed into the usage of Persian, the Caucasian and the Balkan languages, etc. See Doerfer, Türkische Elemente im Neupersischen

al-ʿAbbās b. Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn

(452 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, eldest son of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn [ q.v.]. When the latter set off for the conquest of Syria, he entrusted the government of Egypt to al-ʿAbbās, his designated heir, but al-ʿAbbās was very soon persuaded to take advantage of his father’s absence to supplant him. Warned by the vizier al-Wāsiṭī, Ibn Ṭūlūn got ready to return to Egypt, and his son, after having emptied the treasury and got together considerable sums of money, went off with his partisans to Alexandria, and then to Barḳa. As soon as he got back…

Silsila

(192 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally “chain”, a term used in the terminology of Ṣūfism and the Ṣūfī orders ( ṭuruḳ ) for a continuous chain of spiritual descent, a kind of mystical isnād [ q.v.]. This connected the head of an order, the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ or pīr , with a person regarded as the order’s founder and back to the Prophet. These ¶ persons might stem from early Islam, such as the Yemeni contemporary of the Prophet, Uways al-Ḳaranī (actually, not initiated directiy but after the Prophet’s death, in a dream), and the Patriarchal Caliphs, especially Abū Bakr, ʿUmar and ʿAlī…

Ismāʿīl Ḥaḳḳī b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb,Manāsti̊rli̊

(364 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(1846-1912), Ottoman religious scholar and preacher. Born and raised in Manāsti̊r in present-day Macedonia, he went to Istanbul as a young man, took medrese courses and taught at the Fatih Mosque. In 1874 he became preacher ( wāʿiẓ ) at the Dolmabahçe Mosque and then at the Aya Sofya, where he drew large crowds. He began his teaching career as professor of Arabic at the ʿAskerī Rüs̲h̲diyye in Eyüb, and in 1884 became teacher of jurisprudence in the Ḥuḳūḳ Mektebi , where he remained until he became a senator ( aʿyān aʿḍāsi̊ ) after the 1908 revolution. He taught co…

Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī al-Aḥdab

(330 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḥanafī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of Lebanon (born at Tripoli in 1243/1827, died at Beirut on 22 Rad̲j̲ab 1308/3 March 1891), who is a distinguished representative of Arabic culture in the 19th century. After following the traditional studies, he became a teacher (1264-8/1848-52), then went to Istanbul (where he addressed a long panegyric to the sultan ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd), was for several years adviser to Saʿīd D̲j̲unbulāṭ and tutor to his children, and finally became a magistrate ¶ in Beirut in 1276/1859. A collaborator in the revue T̲h̲amarāt al-funūn and an important fi…

Raʾs al-ʿĀm

(113 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) means New Year’s Day, lit. “beginning of the year”, i.e. 1 al-Ṃuharram. For the difference with Raʾs al-sana, see Lane, Lexicon , s.v. ʿām . Sunnī Muslim law does not prescribe any particular celebration for the first month of the year, except that a voluntary fast-day is recommended on the tenth [see ʿās̲h̲ūrāʾ ]. However, the first ten days of the month are considered as particularly blessed (Lane, Manners and customs, chs. ix, xxiv). The S̲h̲īʿa know several celebrations during this month [see muḥarram ; taʿziya ]. In most Islamic countries, New Year’…

K̲h̲wād̲j̲a

(194 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(p.), a title used in many different senses in Islamic lands. In earlier times it was variously used of scholars, teachers, merchants, ministers and eunuchs. In mediaeval Egypt, according to Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , vi, 13, it was a title for important Persian and other foreign merchants (cf. CIA, Égypte , i, no. 24). In Sāmānid times, with the epithet buzurg “great”, it designated the head of the bureaucracy; later it was a title frequently accorded to wazīrs, teachers, writers, rich men, and merchants. In the Ottoman Empire it was used of the ulema , and in the plural form K̲h̲ w ād̲j̲egān [ q.v.]…

Lalitpur

(220 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a town in the Bundelkhand region of Central India, administratively in the southwards-protruding tongue of the former United Provinces, Uttar Pradesh of the Indian Union. It is situated in lat. 24° 42′ N. and long. 78° 28′ E. on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway and on the Kānpūr (Cawnpore)—Saugor road. Tradition ascribes its foundation to Lalitā, wife of a Deccani Rād̲j̲ā, and till the early 16th century it was held by the Gonds. In the…

Čobān-Og̲h̲ullari̊

(160 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a family of derebey s [ q.v.] in Ottoman Anatolia, who controlled the districts ( nāḥiyes ) of Tiyek, Ekbez and Hacılar in the eastern parts of the Amanus Mountains or Gâvur Daği (in the hinterland of Iskenderun [see iskandarūn ] in modern Turkey). They claimed hereditary power in the area from the time of Sultan Murād IV (1032-49/1623-40), when the latter, in the course of his campaign against the Persians in ¶ Bag̲h̲dād, granted these districts to a local shepherd ( ćobān ). By the 19th century, the family was divided into two branches, one controlling…

Rābig̲h̲

(368 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Bandar Rābig̲h̲, Rābug̲h̲), a port in the Ḥid̲j̲āz province of Saudi Arabia, in lat. 22° 48ʹ N., and long. 39° 1ʹ E., half-way between D̲j̲udda [ q.v.] and Yanbuʿ. It may perhaps be identified with Ptolemy’s ’Αργα χώμη (Sprenger, Die alte Geographie , no. 38). North of Rābig̲h̲ lies al-Abwāʾ [ q.v.], now called al-K̲h̲urayba. the reputed burial place of the Prophet’s mother Āmina [ q.v.]. In the past, the port had no proper harbour. Ships anchored at S̲h̲arm Rābig̲h̲, an inlet about 3 km long, which offered excellent anchorage (Hogarth, Hejaz , 29). From there ca…

Zamzama

(117 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a.), in early Arabic “the confused noise of distant thunder” (Lane, 1249b), but widely used in the sources for early Islamic history for the priests of the Magians reciting and intoning the Zoroastrian prayers and scriptures, producing (to the Arabs’ ears) an indistinct, droning sound. Thus in al-Ṭabarī, i, 1042, we have the zamzama of the Herbadhs, in 2874 the muzamzim or adherent of Zoroastrianism, and in 2880 zamzama for the Zoroastrian rites and zamāzima for the Magians in general. The term may have passed into Christian Sogdian texts, probably in the early Islamic period, as zmzmʾ

Ḥafṣ b. Sulaymān

(308 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. al-Mug̲h̲īra , Abū ʿUmar b. Abī Dāwūd al-Asadī al-Kūfī al-Fāk̲h̲irī al-Bazzāz , transmitter of the “reading” of ʿĀṣim [ q.v.]. Born about 90/709, he became a merchant in cloth, which gained for him the surname of Bazzāz. His fame rests solely on the knowledge he had acquired of the “reading” of the master of Kūfa, whose son-in-law he was. After the death of the latter and the foundation of Bag̲h̲dād he settled in the capital, where he had numerous pupils, then went to spread the “reading” of his father-in-law in…

Munṣif

(114 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally, “one who metes out justice, inṣāf [ q.v.]”, a term used in Muslim Indian administration, and then in that of British India, to denote a legal official or judge of subordinate grade. In Mug̲h̲al times, a chief munṣif ( munṣif-i munṣifān ) tried civil cases, especially those involving revenue questions, within a sarkār see R.C. Majumdar (ed.), The history and culture of the Indian people, vii. The Mughul empire, 1974, 79, 84, 86). In British India, from 1793 onwards, it was the title of a native civil judge of the lowest grade (see Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, a glossary of…

Lālis̲h̲

(136 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a valley some 30 miles/50 km northnorth-east of Mawṣil in ʿIrāḳ, in the ḳaḍāʾ of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲an and in a largely Kurdish mountain area, famed as the principal pilgrimage centre of the Yazīdī sect [see yazīdīs ]. The d̲j̲amāʿiyya of the Yazīdīs is held from the 23th to the 30th September O.S. (6th to the 13th October N.S.) each year, and revolves round the shrine of the founder, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ ʿAdī b. Musāfir [ q.v.] and the tombs of other early saints of the sect. The first European to attend and ¶ describe the festival seems to have been Sir Henry Layard in 1846 and 1849; a valuable des…

al-Suwaynī

(83 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Saʿd b. ʿĀlī Bā Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (d. 857/1453), ʿAlawī sayyid of Ḥaḍramawt. He was the student of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bā ʿAlawī of Tarīm, from the Saḳḳāf branch of the sayyids [see bā ʿalawī ], and in turn the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of Abū Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿAydarūs, the patron saint of Aden [see ʿadan ], d. 914/1508 [see ʿaydarūs ]. It was this last who was to compose the manāḳib of al-Suwaynī. (Ed.) Bibliography See R.B. Serjeant, The Saiyids of Hadramawt, London 1957.
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