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Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a Yegen

(36 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Seyyid (1138-1201/1726-87), Ottoman Grand Vizier from 16 Ramaḍān 1196-25 Muḥarram 1197/25/August-31 December 1782. Of Janissary birth, he died as Serʿasker at Köstend̲j̲e [ q.v.] on 25 Muḥarram 1202/6 December 1787. (Ed.)


(114 words)

Author(s): Ed,
b. Muḥammad al-Ḥāsib (“the calculator”) al-Munad̲j̲d̲j̲im (“the astrologer”), mathematician, astronomer and astrologer who apparently lived in the 3rd/9th century. He wrote various works in the fields of his expertise, including one on the use of the astrolabe and al-Zīd̲j̲ al-kāfī , which are now lost, although they were known to scholars like al-Bīrūnī and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ṣūfī. A work on burning mirrors, K. fi ’l-Marāyā al-muḥriḳa , and another on mineralogy, the K. K̲h̲awāṣṣ al-aḥd̲j̲ār , do, however, survive. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-Nadīm, Fihrist, ed. Tad̲j̲addud, 336 Ibn…

Rāṇā Sāṇgā

(395 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(reigned 915-35/1509-28), Rād̲j̲pūt ruler of the kingdom of Mēwāŕ [ q.v.] on the borders of Rād̲j̲āsthān and Mālwā, with his capital at Čitawŕ. He was a strenuous opponent of the Muslim rulers of northern and western India in the years before Bābur’s establishment of the Mug̲h̲al empire, and under him, Mēwāŕ became a major power in India. In the first 15 years of his reign, he made firm his power within Mēwāŕ and strengthened his position vis-à-vis his Muslim neighbours. The reaction of the ruler of Mālwā, Maḥmūd II K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī, against the ascendancy of his Rād̲j̲pūt wazīr Mēdinī Rāʾī [ q.v.]…


(298 words)

Author(s): Ed,
“land of the South Slavs”, a Balkan state which came into being through the peace treaties consequent on the end of the First World War, 1919-20 (St-Germain, Neuilly, Trianon), as the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes under the ruling house of its largest component, Serbia. According to the constitution which came into effect on 1 January 1921, this was to be a unitary state, but this was never fully achieved, and arrangements in August 1939 envisaged a federal stru…

Muḥammad b. Zayd

(502 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl... b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, Zaydī Imām who reigned over Ṭabaristān [ q.v.] and D̲j̲urd̲j̲ān [see [ gurgān ] ¶ for some years during the second half of the 3rd/9th century. As the brother of al-Ḥasan b. Zayd [ q.v.] al-dāʿī al-kabīr , he succeeded him in 270/884 and received the title of al-dāʿī al-ṣag̲h̲īr and the laḳab or honorific title of al-Ḳāʾim bi ’l-Ḥaḳḳ. It is above all from this point that he is heard of, since before his assumption of power he seems to have lived in his brother’s shadow. The latter, howe…


(497 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a., pl. mad̲h̲āhib ), inf. n. of d̲h̲-h-b , meaning “a way, course, mode, or manner, of acting or conduct or the like” (Lane, i, 983b); as a term of religion, philosophy, law, etc. “a doctrine, a tenet, an opinion with regard to a particular case”; and in law specifically, a technical term often translated as “school of law”, in particular one of the four legal systems recognised as orthodox by Sunnī Muslims, viz. the Ḥanafiyya, Mālikiyya, S̲h̲āfiʿiyya and Ḥanbaliyya [ q.vv.], and the S̲h̲īʿī Ḏj̲aʿfarī and Zaydiyya legal schools [see it̲h̲nā ʿas̲h̲ariyya ; zaydiyya ]. For an exposé of mad̲h̲h…

ʿAṭāʾ Bey

(129 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ṭayyārzāde ʿAtāʾ Allāh Aḥmad, known as ʿAṭāʾ Bey, Ottoman historian. He was born in Istanbul in 1225/1810, the son of a palace official. He himself was educated in the palace, and held various official positions. In 1293/1876 he went to the Ḥid̲j̲āz to take up an appointment as administrator of the sacred territory (ḥarām) of Mecca, and died in Medina in 1294/1877 or 1297/1880. His most important work is his five volume history, known as Taʾrīk̲h̲-i ʿAṭāʾ (Istanbul 1291-3/1874-6). Its chief interest derives from his intimate knowledge of the organ…

Nūr Ḳuṭb al-ʿĀlam

(118 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sayyid, Ṣūfī saint of Pānduʾā [ q.v.] in Bengal and pioneer writer in the Bengali vernacular, d. 819/1416. An adherent of the Čis̲h̲tī order, he and his descendants did much to popularise it in Bengal and Bihār and to create an atmosphere favourable to the rise of the Bhakti movement there. In the literary field, he introduced the use of rīk̲h̲ta , half-Persian, half-Bengali poetry. On the political plane, he secured the patronage of the S̲h̲arḳīs of D̲j̲awnpūr [ q.vv. ], and seems to have urged Sultan Ibrāhīm S̲h̲arḳī [ q.v.] to attack the Islamised Hindu line of Rād̲j̲ā Gaṇeśa [see rād̲j̲ā g…

Ibn al-Ṣāʾig̲h̲

(184 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-ʿArūḍī , Abu ʿAbd Allāh S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. Sibāʿ al-D̲j̲ud̲h̲āmī , known also under the name of Ibn S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Salāmiya, poet, grammarian and lexicographer, born at Damascus in 645/1247 and died there circa 722/1322. Ibn al-Ṣāʾig̲h̲, who taught grammar, prosody and belles-lettres in a shop in the jewellers’ quarter, is the author of a certain number of glosses and abridgements of famous works (commentary ¶ on Ibn Durayd’s Maḳṣūra , an abridgement of the Ṣaḥāḥ of al-D̲j̲awharī, an abridgement of the commentaries by Ibn K̲h̲arūf and by al-Sīrāfī on the Kitāb

Ramy al-D̲j̲imār

(114 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally, “the throwing of pebbles”, a practice which probably goes back to early Arabia and whose most celebrated survival is in the ritual throwing of stones in the valley of Minā by the pilgrims returning from ʿArafāt in the course of the Meccan Pilgrimage [see al-d̲j̲amra ; ḥaḏj̲ḏj̲ . iii. c]. In Fahd’s view, the rite does not seem to have had any divinatory significance, but among suggestions regarding its origins is the one that it could have been a gesture of solidarity with a dead person, on whose tomb stones are placed. See the discussion in T. Fahd, La divination arabe, Leiden 1…

Ibn Abi ’l-Zinād

(256 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Dhakwān , Medinan traditionist and jurist of the 2nd/8th century, who came from a mawālī family. His father Abu ’l-Zinād (d. 130/747-8) had been made head of the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ of ʿIrāḳ, and he himself was appointed to a similar office at Medina. He then went to Bag̲h̲dād, where he died in 174/790-1 at the age of 74. His ¶ brother Abu ’l-Ḳāsim and his son Muḥammad also transmitted ḥadīt̲h̲ s. Goldziher ( Muh . Studien , i, 242 32-3, Eng. tr. i, 31, 38) noted that ʿAbd al-Rahman was one of those who, if they did not invent it, at least s…


(272 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally “the fact of being pleased or contented; contentment, approval” (see Lane, 1100), a term found in Ṣūfī mysticism and also in early Islamic history. 1. In mystical vocabulary. In the Ḳurʾān, the root raḍiya and its derivatives occur frequently in the general sense of “to be content”, with nominal forms like riḍwān “God’s grace, acceptance of man’s submission” (e.g. III, 156/61, 168/174; IV, 13/12; IX, 73/72; LVII, 20, 27), although the actual form riḍā does not occur. In the writings of the proto-Ṣūfī al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī [ q.v.], it is a moral state, contentment with t…

al-Ḥaddād, al-Ṭāhir

(589 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, nationalist and reformist Tunisian writer, considered as the pioneer of the movement for feminine liberation in his country. Born in Tunis ca. 1899 into a family of modest status originally from the Ḥāma of Gabès, he studied at the Zaytūna [ q.v.] from 1911 to 1920 and gained the taṭwīʿ (corresponding to the diploma for completing secondary education). He then took part in the trade union movement and was put in charge of propaganda in an organisation founded in 1924, the D̲j̲āmiʿat ʿumūm al-ʿamala al-tūnisiyya , ¶ whose chief promoters were hunted down and banished in 1925. His…

Ḥareket Ordusu

(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, literally “action army”, the name usually given to the striking force sent from Salonica on 17 April 1909, under the command of Maḥmūd S̲h̲ewket Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], to quell the counter-revolutionary mutiny in the First Army Corps in Istanbul. The striking force also known as the Army of Deliverance, reached the capital on 23 April (n.s.) ¶ and, after some clashes with the mutineers, occupied the city on the following day. (Ed.) Bibliography B. Lewis, The emergence of modern Turkey 3, London 1965, 212-3. See further ḥusayn ḥilmī pas̲h̲a and ittiḥād we teraḳḳī.


(78 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), literally “lad of the interior”, i.e. “page of the inner service ( Enderūn [ q.v.])”, Ottoman term for those boys and youths, at first slaves, recruits through the devs̲h̲irme [ q.v.], and occasionally hostages, later (from the 11th/17th century) also free-born Muslims, who were selected for training in the palaces of Edirne and Istanbul in order to occupy the higher executive offices of the state. For details, see g̲h̲ulām , iv; ḳapi̊-ḳulu ; sarāy-i hümāyūn . (Ed.)


(119 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a term employed in Algerian Arabic (cf. βαύκαλις) to denote a two-handled pottery vase used by women in the course of the divinatory practices to which it gave its name. The operation consisted, basically, of the woman who officiated improvising, after an invocation, a short poem which was also called būḳāla and from which portents were drawn. These practices, which seem to have enjoyed a certain vogue during the period when piracy was at its height (women wanted to have news of their men who were at sea), developed into …

S̲h̲ehir Ketk̲h̲üdāsi̊

(119 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), an official of the pre-modern Ottoman empire, who had financial and administrative duties. His prime function was to collect the specified taxation from a town or its quarters (a function thus corresponding to that of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , al-balad in Egypt), whereas the aʿyān [ q.v.] acquired tax-farming rights in the rural areas of the provinces. As with the aʿyān, the office of s̲h̲ehir ketk̲h̲üdāsi̊ tended to become hereditary; and there was, obviously, much scope in it for oppression of the taxpayers. Having lasted from the time of…

Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī al-Aḥdab

(330 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḥanafī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of Lebanon (born at Tripoli in 1243/1827, died at Beirut on 22 Rad̲j̲ab 1308/3 March 1891), who is a distinguished representative of Arabic culture in the 19th century. After following the traditional studies, he became a teacher (1264-8/1848-52), then went to Istanbul (where he addressed a long panegyric to the sultan ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd), was for several years adviser to Saʿīd D̲j̲unbulāṭ and tutor to his children, and finally became a magistrate ¶ in Beirut in 1276/1859. A collaborator in the revue T̲h̲amarāt al-funūn and an important fi…


(133 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. asīd b. abiʾl-ʿīṣ b. umayya al-umawī , a Companion of the Prophet, who was converted on the day of the capture of Mecca; shortly afterwards, during the battle of Ḥunayn (8/629), he was appointed governor of Mecca by Muḥammad, and continued to hold this post under Abū Bakr. He agreed to marry Ḏj̲uwayriya bint Abī Ḏj̲ahl in order to prevent ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib from taking a second wife in addition to Fāṭima. The date of his death varies between 12 and 23/634-44. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-ʿAsḳalānī, Iṣāba, no. 5391 Muṣʿab al-Zubayrī, Nasab Ḳurays̲h̲, index Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb, Muḥabbar, i…


(115 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), room, apartment, used (with the definite article) especially of the room of ʿĀʾis̲h̲a where the Prophet and his two successors, Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, were buried; it is now one of the holiest places of Islam [see al-madīna ]. From the same word is also derived Ḥud̲j̲ariyya , a term used in Egypt for the slaves who were lodged in barracks near to the royal residence. Under the Fāṭimids, these slaves were organized by al-Afḍal into a sort of military bodyguard under the command of an amīr who held the title of al-Muwaffaḳ. They consisted at this period of 3000 men (see al-Maḳrīzī, Ḵh̲iṭaṭ
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