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(355 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] is a significant Marian pilgrimage site near Ancona (central Italy). According to legend, the sanctuary there (“Santa Casa”), a simple rectangular wall with no foundation surrounded by a magnificent hall church (1468–1587) and clad with marble (1513–1538), probably following plans by D. Bramante, is Mary's place of birth in Nazareth, the house in which the annunciation of the immaculate conception took place, and in which Jesus grew up. After the Muslim conquest of Akko in 1291, a…

Vincentian Sisters

(454 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul – II. Strasbourg Congregation I. Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul (Filles de la Charité de Saint Vincent de Paul [FdC]; Puellae Caritatis), a congregation founded in Paris in 1633 by Vincent de Paul and L. de Marillac, initially to assist the Confrérie des Dames de Charité, a society of gentlewomen formed to care for poor and solitary invalids. They took only private vows, renewed annually, leaving them free for charitable work since they we…

Clement, Sisters of

(140 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The order of the “Sisters of Clement” (“Merciful Sisters of the Most Blessed Virgin and Sorrowful Mother Mary”) was founded in 1808 by C.A. Droste-Vischering in Münster, Westphalia. The first German congregation since the secularization of 1803, it was dedicated to the care of the sick (from 1820 in the Clement Hospital, hence its name) and conceived on the model of the Vincentians. Their first prioress was the converted pastor's daughter and art…

Marian Congregations

(398 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Marian Congregations or sodalities are Catholic lay fellowships or associations ¶ that seek to help their members grow in the faith, live their religion in everyday life, and support the apostolic mission of the church. To make Jesuit spirituality (Jesuits) available to lay people, in 1563 the Belgian Jesuit Jan Leunis (1536–1584) brought together a group of students at the Jesuit College in Rome to form the first Marian Congregation. In 1584 Gregory XIII erected it canonically as the mother congregation ( Prima Primaria) of all Marian Congregations. As the Jesu…

Brothers of the Christian Schools,

(439 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] term for members of various Catholic congregations with a mission of teaching and training. I. Brothers of the Christian Schools (De La Salle Brothers, Fratres Scholarum Christianarum, FSC), founded in 1681 by J.B. de La Salle in Reims. Gradual development into the congregation recognized by the pope in 1725 which set itself the task of school education for the lower and middle classe…

Institutum Beatae Mariae Virginis

(339 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Mary Ward Sisters; since 2004: Congregatio Jesu), one of the most important female teaching orders of the Catholic Church. The “Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary” was founded by the Englishwoman Mary Ward (1585–1645) in 1609/10 in the Spanish Netherlands during the persecution of Catholics in England in order to care for and educate English girls living there. It was patterned after the model of the Jesuits. The founder, in favor of her youth work, dispensed with both the stri…

Fey, Klara

(187 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Clara; Apr 11, 1815, Aachen – May 8, 1894, Simpelveld, The Netherlands) was the daughter of a factory owner. Heavily influenced by her teacher L. Hensel, she found her way to charitable work at an early age. With the help of two friends, she opened a school for abandoned and neglected girls in 1837, for whose care and education she founded the congregation of the Sisters of the Poor Child Jesus in 1844. The mother-house in Aachen as well as many subsidiary houses having been disbanded in the wake of the Kulturkampf , the founder of the order and lifel…


(208 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( Clerici regulares ministrantes infirmis, MI; Ordo Sancti Camilli, OSC). The Camillians are the only clerical order of the Catholic Church devoted entirely to charitable service. The order was founded in Rome in 1582 by Camillo de Lellis (1550–1614) to renew the ministry of service to the sick (fourth vow: to serve the sick, regardless of mortal danger – hence grave losses during epidemics of the plague and cholera). After the demise of the Order of Servants o…


(207 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Congregatio S. Mariae Montis Oliveti OSB; Ordo S. Benedicti Montis Oliveti, OSBOliv), a reformed Benedictine congregation with strictly central organization, appointment of officers for a limited time, frequent transfers of monks, and spirituality with eremitical and mariological features. It was initiated by blessed Bernardo Tolomei (1272–1348), who settled around 1313 with a few companions on Monte Oliveto near Siena in Italy. The movement spread rapidly, but only in central an…

Kentenich, Josef

(233 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Nov 18, 1885, Gymnich near Cologne – Sep 15, 1968, Schönstatt) was the founder and leader of the Schönstatt movement. He joined the Societas Apostolatus Catholici (SAC) in 1909 (member until 1965) and was ordained to the priesthood in 1910. He founded the movement in 1914, further structuring and expanding it from 1919 onward. The movement grew out of educational work with the pupils of the Pallottines in Schönstatt near Vallendar on the Rhine. From 1941 to 1945 he was imprisoned by the Gestapo and sent …


(112 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Istituto della Carità, Fathers of Charity, IC), founded by A. Rosmini-Serbati in 1828 on Monte Calvario near Domodosolla in northern Italy. The members of the congregation take simple life vows and retain their personal assets. The congregation includes priests and lay brothers, who engage in educational work, apostolate to intellectuals, care for emigrants, and mission. As of 2001, there were some 400 religious in Italy, England, Ireland, the United States, India, and Africa; th…


(343 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Society of the Catholic Apostolate, Societas Apostolatus Catholici), founded in 1835 by St. Vincent Pallotti (1795–1850) in Rome as a community of priests and brothers, in order to spread and deepen faith. Its members take no vows, but promise to live in ¶ community according to the counsels of perfection, for a limited time, or permanently. Clergy promise furthermore not to seek church honors, or to accept them without permission. From 1854 to 1947 the society was known as the Pia Societas Missionum. It has missions in the Cameroon (1890), southern Brazil, no…


(444 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Oratorians of Saint Philip Neri – II. French Oratory I. Oratorians of Saint Philip Neri (Oratory of Divine Love, Congregation of the Oratory, Philippians, Institutum Oratorii S. Philippi Nerii), congregation of secular priests who lead a common life of prayer and pastoral ministry in the spirit of P. Neri, united only by bonds of mutual love, without vows and binding commitments (albeit under statutes approved in 1612). The congregation was founded in 1552 in the oratory of its founder’s commu…


(110 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The Johannesbund at Leutesdorf (Rhine) was founded in 1919 by Johannes M. Haw (1871–1949) as an initiative on the part of lay people and priests to spread the kingdom of God after the example of John the Baptist. Its members work in cooperation with the Sisters of St. John the Baptist and the Missionaries of St. John the Baptist to support charitable and educational institutions in Germany, Portugal, Mozambique, and India; they also have a press apostolate and conduct retreats (Exercises, Spiritual). Manfred Eder Bibliography J. Fleckenstein, Über die Idee und die h…

Relief Organizations, Catholic (Germany)

(301 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] These are predominantly internationally oriented organizations, which aim to offer aid through solidarity and partnership, to work for development and peace, mission and the proclamation of the gospel. In Germany, they include: Adveniat (Essen), diocesan action to support ministry among impoverished peoples in Latin America (est. 1961). Bonifatiuswerk (until 1967: Bonifatiusverein für das katholische Deutschland; Paderborn), for support of ministry amongst the Catholic diaspora in…


(426 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] members of a third order ( tertius ordo). I. Secular Tertiaries Tertiaries are members of a third order for men or women; since the 11th/12th century, they have associated with the male (First Order) or female (Second Order) branch of existing orders, especially the mendicant orders that arose in the 13th century, in order to pursue religious or social goals. The most important was and still is the Franciscan Third Order ( Tertius OrdoFranciscanus, TOF). In his Letter to the Faithful, Francis had limited himself to urging them to live active Christian lives,…

Picpus Society

(367 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Congregatio Sacrorum Cordium Jesu et Mariae necnon adorationis perpetuae SS. Sacramenti Altaris, SSCC). The congregation, named after its former motherhouse in the Rue de Picpus in Paris, consists of a male branch (the Picpus Fathers, in Germany also commonly known as the “Arnstein Fathers,” after their first settlement in Arnstein on the Lahn), and a female branch (the Picpus Sisters or Zélatrices). It was founded in the late 18th century, in response to the pressure of the Fren…


(247 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Congregatio Missionis, CM; also Vincentian Fathers, Preti della Missione), founded in Paris in 1625 by Vincent de Paul to evangelize the rural French population through home missions (Mission to the People). Their apostolate soon expanded to include the training of priests, leading retreats (Exercises, Spiritual), spiritual guidance of the sisterhoods established by Vincent, pastoral care of prisoners and galley slaves, and foreign missions (after 1645; after 1697 in China, where…


(175 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] . I.Sionsschwestern (Schwestern Unserer Lieben Frau von Sion, Religieuses de Notre-Dame de Sion, Congregatio Nostrae Dominae de Sion, NDS), 1843 in Paris durch den aus einer jüd. Bankiersfamilie stammenden kath. Priester Théodore Ratisbonne (1802–1884) gegründete Kongregation zur Erziehung von Kindern aus nichtchristl. Familien. Die ersten Gründungen erfolgten in Jerusalem, der Türkei (jeweils 1856), England (1861), Rumänien (1866) und Ägypten (1869). Durch das Vaticanum II erhie…


(156 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Ordo Clericorum Regularium a Somasc[h]a, CRS), 1534 in Somasca (Lombardei, Italien) durch den venezianischen Adeligen Gerolamo Miani (Emiliani, hl., um 1486–1537) im Geiste der Kath. Reform als »Gesellschaft der Knechte der Armen« (Compagnia dei Servi dei poveri) gegründeter Regularklerikerorden für pastorale, sozial-karitative und päd. Aufgaben (bes. Waisenerziehung). Nach schwieriger Anfangsphase Konsolidierung, aber um 1800 fast untergegangen. Langsame, bis ins 20.Jh. andauer…
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