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14.2 Hebrew (Ancient) 

(1,089 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate
Part of 14. TobitThe five manuscripts of the Tobit story that survived as fragments in the Qumran library include one version in the Hebrew language. In connection with the textual evidence in the Aramaic language (14.5), this find has shed new light on the Tobit story, both in terms of contents, as well as of its textual and historical context, as its close relation to Aramaic literature from the Second Temple period (cf. themes of demonology, endogamy, eschatology, etc.) became apparent when com…
Date: 2018-11-07

Targum Research

(838 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate
[German Version] I. Aramaic Targumim Targum texts first attracted the attention of Jewish exegesis (VIII, 2; Bible translations: I, 4) and of Christian Humanism. In the late 18th century, the scholarly study of Targum literature then began in the wake of the Wissenschaft des Judentums (Berliner; Ginsburger). Targum research also received decisive impulses from the discoveries of the texts from the Cairo Geniza (II; Kahle, Klein), the discovery of the Targum Neofiti in 1956 (Díez Macho), the publication of hitherto unknown Yemenite manuscripts (Sperber), as well as …

Cult/Worship

(8,783 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Dorothea | Xella, Paolo | Ego, Beate | Niebuhr, Karl-Wilhelm | Lehmkühler, Karsten | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History of Scholarship – III. Ancient Near East – IV. Old Testament and Early Judaism – V. New Testament – VI. Philosophy of Religion – VII. Christianity – VIII. Liturgical Practice – IX. Ethics I. Religious Studies 1. Concept The word “cult” comes from Lat. cultus. Cicero ( De senectute 56) uses the phrase cultus deorum in the sense of “worship of the gods.” It invariably refers to acts of “care and tending”; in secular contexts the word denotes agrarian work (cf. agriculture). There are analogous words in other ancient languages…

Ezekiel, Apocryphon of

(209 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate
[German Version] This Jewish work, from the period before the destruction of the temple in 70 ce, is extant in only four shorter fragments transmitted by various church fathers (including Justin, Epiphanius, Clement of Alexandria, Augustine, Cyprian, Gregory of Nyssa, and Tertullian). Fragment 1, the longest, contains a parable of a blind person and a lame person, intended to show that the body and the soul must be t…

Exegesis

(13,995 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Cancik, Hubert | Seidl, Theodor | Schnelle, Udo | Bienert, Wolfgang A. | Et al.
[German Version] (Biblical Scholarship, Hermeneutics, Interpretation) I. Religious Studies – II. History of Religions – III. Greco Roman Antiquity – IV. Bible – V. Church History – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Biblical Scenes in Art – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Religious Studies Exegesis (for etymology see III below) is the explanation, interpretation, or analysis of sacred or otherwise religiously central documents by experts; it enables and encourages the access of a …